Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Recycled toothbrushes make sense Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Recycled toothbrushes make sense - Assignment Example Therefore, it simplifies its logistics and supply chain management and makes it low-cost. Hudson could send motivators to schools and colleges, to build awareness amongst the young people regarding the advantages of using recycled plastic products. These personnel should make concerted effort to project the usage of recycled plastic products as the hallmarks of an alternate lifestyle, which is not only eco-friendly, but also modern and trendy. As Hudson has access to desirable raw material for free, he can set the price of its products competitively lower than the comparable regular products (Zimring 45). Availability of low-cost, eco-friendly products will certainly add to his customer base. Hudson should make it a point to educate the prospective customers that the raw material for his products comes from the packaging of branded food stuff, and is hygienic and safe. This will dilute the lack of acceptance that some customers may feel about products like recycled toothbrushes. Answer: It is vital for Recycline to understand that selling recycled products is not merely about products, but offering an alternate life style. This eco-friendly life style is not only increasing in popularity, but its followers have strong emotional and ethical attachments associated with it. So, at present Recycline is basically a small contributor to this new but fast spreading way of life. As the company grows larger and as it gets access to desirable capital, and customer base, it could exploit its brand appeal to enter into industries that project eco-friendliness and sustainability. Such industries could be like organic food, recycled paper, herbal medicines, etc. The primary objective of the company should be to use its growth and brand equity to carve out a larger share from the market for eco-friendly products and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Analysis - I have written my article about cloning Essay Example for Free

Analysis I have written my article about cloning Essay I have written my article about cloning. The opinions I have used in it are a highly exaggerated depiction of extremist views. I have shown, how ridiculous and outrageous these views are by overstressing every point and going to immense extremities, such as the master race and the worker race, these are so severe that the worker race would even be kept underground. I used pictures in my writing to make it easier for people to visualize the images that I am talking about because then they will be able to understand my ideas better. I have inserted a picture of Britney Spears, as she is a well-known, famous star, that many people like, or would like to be. The reason that I have included this particular image is because many people long to live like these stars and by using the image I am implying that if we introduce cloning and the so- called master race then everyone will be able to live like this. Many people believe that she is a perfect human being and this is the idea that I am trying to convey with the master race, that after using the system for a couple of decades, what will be left will be a, supposedly, perfect human race, which for many people the picture used illustrates perfectly. If I had room for more pictures on the page I would have used a picture of another stereotypical perfect male star to appeal to both sexes, but I wanted the article to look professional so I tried to keep the number of pictures too minimum. The picture will also encourage people to read the article because if they have turned over the page and they then see the picture of Britney. If they are an admirer, then they will most probably turn back to the start of the article to read it the whole way through. The reason that the picture has been repeated three times is because it shows what could be achieved by cloning, not just one, allegedly, flawless human being but as many as wanted, a whole race of them even. The repetition shows the main process of cloning as well, making an identical copy of something/ someone. I also use pictures of Morlocks from the film of the book The Time Machine by H. G Wells. The book and the films are set far into the future, this is also a little indication of the fact that this is could really happen in the future. These creatures were humans but as time has passed they started to live underground as they were using all of the earths resources, that is the main reason that I am using this picture to show what the, as I have called them in my article, worker race, would be like as my extreme plan is to have them working day and night, underground to provide the master race with everything they need. The reason that I have used such a ghastly picture is because I want it shock the reader, it will also draw attention to the article. The workers wont be good-looking, as they will never of had sunlight on their skin and never of had any of the beauty products and treatments we take for granted so the picture is an accurate representation of what they would actually look like. The contrast between the purportedly picture perfect Britney and the hideous, unsightly Morlock should make people start to think that they would much rather be with the master race rather than the workers. There is also the idea that this is what the human race has become as it has evolved and that cloning could save us from this atrocious fate and instead bring us to the attractive future that the master race offers. Two of the pictures are in black and white, these are the pictures of the worker race, these are in black and white to give a feel of darkness to the pictures and to imply that this is the sort of life they would have, never seeing any colour, whereas the picture of the master race is brightly coloured and shows an image that people feel drawn to look at unlike the pictures of the Morlocks and the ants. This means that the contrast is even more noticeable between the two sets of pictures. I have used the layout of having the pictures cutting into the writing, so that you cant help looking at the pictures while you are reading, helping the readers to picture the ideas I am putting into their heads, I have also put captions underneath the pictures to show what the pictures are of and how they relate to the topic of the article. The pictures are large and stand out from the page causing them to catch the readers eye whilst they are flicking through the paper, meaning that they read the article. I have used a strong title, Hitler Was Right, to fascinate the reader even before they have started reading the article. Including a strong political figure compels people to read the article as it looks like it could be an article of great importance. They will straight away wonder what the article could be about, causing suspense that will keep them reading until the very end of the article when they will realize that I was simply, apparently, agreeing with one very simple part of Hitlers range of ideas, that the world would be a better place if just one master race was to occupy it. This title has been written in Times New Roman and is in font size 36, I have done this so that the title stands out from all of the other things on the page. People wont be able to help noticing the title and this will generate interest in the article. The main body of the writing is in a quite large text; this is because I want it to stand out and not to be too small. The effect of this is that the article will not look as much of a difficult task to read, encouraging more people to read it. The prologue to the article is written in bold writing slightly bigger than in the main body of the text, this is so that this will stand out just a little bit more and people will read it before they read the main article. The writing in this prologue is encouraging people to read the main article. By ending it with a question the question is: why not? It makes people read on, as they want to find out the answer to this question, Straight away, in this first prologue I have shown my opinion, that I agree with cloning and all of the brilliant ideas that come along with it, this means that people will be under no disillusion while they are reading the article.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Gender Roles and Marriage in The Proposal by Chekhov and Country Lovers

In the following essay I will compare and contrast gender roles and marriage between â€Å"The Proposal† by Anton Chekhov and â€Å"Country Lovers† by Nadine Gordimer to showing how women tried to survive in controlling their identity. This essay will compare and contrast each of the characters used by two very different writers. The early 1900’s era was not kind to people in their struggle for what they tried to accomplish with their lives. Nadine Gordimer was born 1923 in Africa. She was against the opposition that the black people of Africa had to face and stressed this issue in her writings. She was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1991. Anton Chekhov was also famous for Russia’s Pushkin Prize in 1888 and like Gordimer, he also wrote many short stories but sometimes ventured out into theater with several plays. Both writers lived abroad sharing the use of conflict in their writings such as unrealistic expectations, endowment and social status. They used symbolism more as a contrast instead of a comparison, but compared lower class to higher class status for each of their characters in the two short stories that will be featured in this paper. In the article written by Gordimer that is titled â€Å"Twenty-one Years Later she states that â€Å"since 1980 other media have taken over from the printed word as the most powerful means of free expression. I remain as totally opposed to censorship as ever, but I am in a quandary when I touch the wrong button on television set and find I’m confronted with a couple making Shakespeare’s ‘beast with two backs’ in a truly beastly and violent sexual display that certainly could frighten any of the many children left to amuse themselves playing the channel keyboard of television. I’m more co... ...p107, 2 p. Contemporary Review Company, Ltd. Gordimer, N., 2001 Twenty-One Years Later, Biography, spring, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p. 277, 2 p. Kenyon, O., 1989 Women Writers Talk, Carroll & Graf Publishers, ISBN-10: 0881847054. Miller, R., 2008 Sweat. February 8, Collins Harper, Retrieved Website: Ritchi, D., 2003 Doing Oral History, New York: O U P. Seyhan, A., 2001 Writing Outside the Nation, U K: Princeton University Press. Singh, G., & Kumari, D., 2011 History Revisited in Oral History by Nadine Gordimer, Language in India, February, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p 296-303, 8 p. Trump, M., 1986 The Short Fiction of Nadine Gordimer, Research in African Literatures, Fall, Vol. 17, Issue 3, p 341-369, 2 p. Winkelmann, J., 2002 â€Å"Restless Legs† in â€Å"The Wedding Proposal†, Acta Neurologica Scandinavia, April, Vol. 105 (4), p. 349-350.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Impact of Biodiesel on Automotive Catalyst Performance Essay

Stringent diesel emissions regulations around the world have put much pressure on the shoulders of manufactures to reduce the level of emissions entering the atmosphere from diesel engines. Much of the initial attempt to achieve this by the manufactures was by the substitution of biodiesel in place of the conventional petroleum diesel. In order to create a balance between the vehicle performance and the imposed emissions regulations, many manufacturers prefer to blend petroleum diesel with biodiesel in a proportion which is deemed suitable to run on their engines. In a statement from the diesel fuel injection systems manufacturer’s association, they suggested that diesel fuel specification should be updated on a regular basis, to allow for the gradually increasing percentage of biodiesel. By so doing injection components could be manufactured such that they are protected from the possible secondary effect of the fatty acid methylesthers, which includes filter plugging due to softening and corrosion of zinc or aluminium parts in the fuel injection system due to the presence of free menthol residues. Whilst biodiesel has been highlighted as a plausible substitute for petroleum diesel, great concerns still arise over the effects of its emissions on health and environment, considering the fact that only a few of its hydrocarbon emissions are yet known. Studies about the effects of increasing biodiesel blend ratio on the operation and emissions of diesel engines have been documented in a vast amount of published and unpublished literature since the 1980’s (1), (2), (3). A general trend of observation amongst most of the literatures reviewed is a reduction in CO and THC emissions with increasing biodiesel blend ratio, like wise incre... ...ation of after treatment systems have been proposed by some researches, as a viable solution in reducing CO, THC and NOx emissions to a non-harmful level. Some of these proposed after treatment systems include DPF (Diesel particulate filter) and DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst). Amy et al’s (27) research in to effect of biodiesel emissions on the performance of a diesel particulate filter in a diesel engine, showed that increased biodiesel blend ratio produced less soot and thus required a lesser regenerative temperature, when compared to the conventional petroleum diesel. Their conclusions indicated the fact that with biodiesel fuels, the regeneration of particulate filters could be carried out without the fear of causing an over heat in the exhaust system. They applauded the reactive nature of the biodiesel soot, as a major contributor to this trend.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Breakdown of Wartime Alliance

Superpower Relations 1943-1991 The Breakdown of the Wartime Alliance The Breakdown of the wartime alliance Although allies, cracks were already appearing in the Soviet-American alliance by 1945. Stalin was particularly suspicious of Britain’s policy before the war of appeasement, which he thought aimed secretly to encourage Hitler to attack Russia. He was also unhappy with the US/British failure to open up a second front in Europe before June 1944. On the other hand the British and Americans were worried about Soviet troops in Eastern Europe and their failure to help the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The question remained- would the USA and USSR remain friends following the removal of the one factor which kept them united- the defeat of Germany? [pic] American and Russian troops meet at Torgau on the Elbe, 25th April 1945 World War Two: K/W/L Grid What do I know about WW2? (complete at start of What do I want to know? What have I learnt? lesson) (complete at start of lesson) (complete at end of lesson using the following pages). The war in Russia was to change the course of World War Two in Europe. In June 1941, World War Two witnessed what was then the largest land attack in history   -‘Operation Barbarossa'. A vast Nazi force used Blitzkrieg to devastating effect on the Russian Army. Hitler had long made it clear that he hated the Russians and that war between the two countries was inevitable. The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 had only delayed what Hitler was apparently planning even when the Battle of Britain was at its height. He believed that the Russians were sub-human (the ‘untermenschen' ) and that they had no right to live where they did. That they were East European was compounded by the fact that Russia was communist and led by Joseph Stalin. Hitler hated communism and Stalin. Hitler wanted all the land in Eastern Europe to be given to Germans as they, Hitler believed, could farm it properly while East Europeans could not. Also many Jews lived in Russia (also known as the USSR at this time) and Hitler wanted them exterminated. In August 1939, Hitler and Russia had signed a treaty of non-aggression which was meant to last for 10 years. However, for both countries the treaty was merely to buy time to get their armies into shape before one attacked the other. Hitler wished to stabilise his western frontier before turning east. Stalin desperately needed to reform his army after the 1930's putches when his senior officers had been effectively wiped out either by imprisonment or execution. In June 1941 Operation Barbarossa took place – a massive attack by the Germans on Russia. Hitler's senior commanders had advised that the bulk of the German attack should be concentrated on Moscow. Two smaller armies would target Leningrad and Stalingrad and engage the enemy. These two armies would then be helped by the troops in the main bulk once Moscow had surrendered. They felt that once the heart of the nation had been cut out, the rest of the country would fall. Hitler would not have this. He did not believe that the Russian army was a match for the Wehrmacht and decided on three equal forces attacking Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad. As always, he got his way. The German attack on Russia involved: 3 million soldiers,    3580 tanks,   7184 artillery guns,   1830 planes  Ã‚   750,000 horses   The Russian army collapsed under this onslaught and the attack was initially incredibly successful. Moscow was nearly reached, Leningrad was surrounded and the oil fields in the south were swiftly approached. But it had one main failing and that was created by Hitler himself. As the Russians pulled back (retreated) they destroyed anything that might be of use to the German army as it advanced – bridges, railways, buildings etc. and poisoned water supplies. This policy was known as â€Å"scorched earth† and it was not expected by the Germans and severely hindered their armies. The supply lines of the German army stretched from Germany through Poland and into Russia itself – a huge distance to defend and control. These supply lines were attacked by guerrillas called partisans who did a considerable amount of damage to the German army and caused major shortages. The winter of 1941-42 was one of the worst in recorded history. Daily temperatures fell to 40 degrees below zero. German soldiers had not been issued with warm winter clothing as Hitler believed that the invasion would be over by the winter. Soldiers froze to death in their sleep, diesel froze in fuel tanks and food was in very short supply. Russian soldiers had been issued with winter clothing and did not suffer as badly as their German enemies. The defeat of an entire German army at Stalingrad was a disaster for the Germans and some historians consider this battle the turning point of World War Two because the German army could now only go in one direction and that was back to Germany. However, while the army was fighting the Russian army, soldiers from the SS Einsatzgruppen murdered hundreds of thousands of civilians. This was all part of Hitler’s plan to get rid of ‘sub-humans' from Europe. It is thought that as many as 20 million Russians died during the war. The slaughter was so great that Himmler believed that the policy of shooting civilians might disturbed those doing the killing. A direct result of this was the order to find a quicker way of murdering the people of Russia and the idea of death factories developed from this which lead to the Holocaust. However, from a military point of view, the defeat of the Germans by the Russians was vital to the Allies overall victory in Europe. Over two-thirds of the German army was in the Russian war and its defeat meant that the Allies in the west (GB, France and USA) had more chance of success against a smaller force. Winston Churchill stated that it was the Russians who â€Å"tore the heart out of the German army. † What was the war like for the people in Russia and for the German soldiers? From a German soldier who fought in Russia : â€Å"Do you know how we behaved to the civilians? We behaved like devils out of Hell. We left those poor villagers to starve to death, thousands and thousands of them. How can you win a war in this way? We shoot villagers on the slightest excuse. Just stick them up against a wall. We order the whole village out to watch. It’s a vicious circle. We hate them and they hate us, and on and on it goes, everyone getting more inhuman. The civilians were all ready to look on us as saviours. They had had years of oppression from the communists. What did we do? Turn into slaves under Hitler. If the Russians should ever pay back one half of what we have done, you won’t smile or sing again. We were quartered (living) in a house outside the town. Our dwelling for the night was a wooden house occupied by a Russian family of five children and an old grandmother. We were bitten by fleas all night. We pened our tins and made coffee, sharing what we had with the children and the old woman. The man of the house was a soldier and the mother had been taken away to dig trenches. The children all had protruding bellies of long-term malnutrition. The reality is that after 22 years of Communist rule, a salted fish is the height of luxury. How this country depresses me. † From a soldier who fought in southern Russia : â€Å"I watched my mother and father die. I knew perfectly well that they were starving. But I wanted their bread more than I wanted them to stay alive. And they knew that. That’s what I remember about the blockade (of Leningrad): that feeling that you wanted your parents to die because you wanted their bread. Daily rationing quotas for the people of Leningrad in November 1941    Labourer Child of Eight Bread 252g 128g Fat 19g 17g Meat 49g 14g Cereals 49g 39g Sugar 49g 39g Factor 1: Communism and Capitalism One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. A speech by President Truman of the US (1947) Read Waugh and Wright page 10 1. Complete the following table to explain the differences between the two political systems [ideologies]: Communism Capitalism Political System Only one political party – the communist party – No choice, Unable toSeveral Parties – voters may choose and change their change their government. government Economic ideas NO private industries or businesses, NO private profit, ALL industry Most industry and businesses privately owned . and businesses owned by the state for the benefit of everyone. State intervention Censorship of media, State run economy , no choice in a government. NO real state intervention, free market Freedoms NO FREEDOM Freedom of speech, freedom to watch, read, listen to whatever you want. Freedom to own your own business 2. What was meant by the term ‘Cold War’? Read Waugh and Wright pages 8-9 Answer: The Cold War was a phrase used to describe the rivalry and tension between the Superpowers- USA and USSR after 1945. The Cold War had several defining features†¦ Now add some brief detail about the following aspects: Different ideologies Capitalism is a way of life that you are free to do as you wish but communism, you are kept to strictlawsEconomic rivalry In Capitalism you are free to own your own business but in Communism all businesses aremonitored by the statePropaganda Both sides used propaganda to create the worst possible image of the other sideArms Race Each side wanted more weapons and newer technologies than the otherSpace race At first it was only to launch the first satellite, then the first man in space and finally first man onthe moonSpying Both sides spied on each other. This was to find out any military developments3. What was meant by the term ‘Superpower’? Read Waugh and Wright page 9 Now have a go at a definition yourself: A super power is a country or an group of countries (Empire) that is very powerful and they havethe best economies and have the most advanced technologies and weapons like the atomic bomb,missiles, etc.Factor 2: Rivalry before 1945 Read Waugh and Wright pages 10-15 During the 1920s and 1930s US and Soviet contact with each other was limited. However both sides viewed each other with suspicion. Though the USA did not feel directly threatened by the USSR there had been ‘red scares’ in America in the early 1920s- Americans feared that immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe might bring with them socialist ideas and attempt to persuade the American working class to mount a revolution. The origins of McCarthyism predate World War Two! Make notes on the following points of tension: a. The Russian Civil War The Bolsheviks led by Lenin seized control of the Government and in the following yearsIntroduced Communism to the countryb. British foreign policy [appeasement] before World War Two British foreign policy was to avoid war in Europe at allCostsRussian cartoon comments on Munich c. Rivalry during World War Twod. The Tehran ConferenceExam Technique Part A Question – DESCRIBE Advice: Write about ONE decision or reason or consequence. Write two sentences- one which makes the point and a second which develops it with some factual detail. Describe one decision made by the allies about the war against Germany at the Tehran conference in 1943 (2) Point: One Decision made by the allies about the war against Germany wasDevelopment:Factor 3: Yalta, Crimea [USSR] 4th-11th February 1945 a. Who were the key figures in the wartime alliance system and what were their aims? Read Waugh and Wright pages 14-15 [pic] 1. Complete the table below explaining each leader’s aims and attitudes at Yalta: [pic] [pic] [pic] Winston Churchill Franklin Delano Roosevelt Joseph Stalin b. The Yalta Meeting: Agreements and Disagreements The aims of the three war leaders were different, both aiming to combine the security of their own country with the ideal of European stability. Stalin wanted to create a buffer of pro-Soviet states to protect the Soviet Union against any potential attack from the West, something which Roosevelt and Churchill were firmly against. Poland, being the largest country in Eastern Europe, was likely to set the pattern for the rest of the region, and it was on this matter that the allies met in February 1945, at Yalta. Two different political groups had emerged: London Poles Lublin Poles This was the Polish government of 1939 which had spent the war years in This was a ‘government in waiting’. Stalin had established this group of exile in London. They continued to meet despite the fact that Poland was Polish communists in the city of Lublin after its liberation from the Nazis. occupied by the Nazis. Stalin hoped to place the Lublin Poles into government in Warsaw. They were anti-communist, and wanted Poland to remain independent and free from Soviet control. The Red Army was the first to reach Poland, and as it approached in August 1944, Polish resistance fighters had begun an uprising against the German occupying troops in Warsaw, the capital. They counted on the support of the nearby Red Army, but also believed that by taking the initiative they could ensure the leadership of the London Poles. The Red Army did nothing to help and the rebellion was mercilessly crushed by the Germans. 300 000 Poles were killed. Eventually Warsaw fell to the Russians and by January 1945 Poland had been liberated and the Lublin Poles were placed in control by the USSR. 2. Complete the table below: Source Despite the apparent unity of the allies (see Sources A and B), behind the scenes the West were increasingly suspicious of Stalin (see Source C). Relations deteriorated as Stalin seemed to ignore certain elements of the Yalta Agreement. The high expectations in the West that Stalin would allow democratic governments in Eastern Europe was soon destroyed when 16 leaders of the Polish Resistance were invited from London to hold talks with the Soviet authorities near Warsaw. They were arrested and never seen again. Source A Source B 3. Who gained most from Yalta?Factor 4: Potsdam, Berlin, 17th July- 2nd August 1945. a. Events before the conference Read Waugh and Wright p16-17 and make notes on the following: 1. What had changed between Yalta and Potsdam? [pic] FOCUS ON:Poland ‘jumps to the left’ Poland in 1939 [marked in bold and dotted] Poland in 1945 [marked in bold and dotted] b. The Potsdam Conference [pic] [pic] [pic] At Potsdam, Truman, less inclined to trust Stalin than Roosevelt had been, also had a secret weapon; Operation Manhattan had been completed and the USA possessed a working atomic bomb. This placed Truman firmly in control of the negotiations: â€Å"Truman was a changed man. He told the Russians where they got on and off and generally bossed the whole meeting† (Churchill, writing about the conference later) Atlee Truman Stalin Using three colours highlight or underline the following: (1) Areas of agreement between the allies; (2) ideas rejected by the West; (3) ideas rejected by Stalin; Exam Technique Part B Question – KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks 2 developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks A key feature is one of three things: A CAUSE†¦AN EVENT†¦A CONSEQUENCE †¦ so do three paragraphs with one of each or two of one and one of another! Remember to number and signpost with the wording of the question. Use the word BECAUSE. Briefly explain the key features of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, 1945 (6) Paragraph 1: One cause of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences was†¦This meant that†¦Paragraph 2: A key event of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences was†¦This meant that†¦Paragraph 3: A key consequence of the Yalta and Potsdam Conference was †¦This meant that†¦Factor 5: The Development of the Iron Curtain, 1945-8 Read Waugh and Wright page 21-23. As the Red Army liberated much of Eastern Europe, Stalin made sure that in the post-war reorganisation most of these countries would be under direct Soviet influence, or at the very least friendly Communist countries. Step by step he took over Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and East Germany in a process described by the Hungarian Communist Rakosi as ‘slicing salami’, or salami tactics (slowly removing or slicing away all opposition to Communism). Why did Stalin do this? Source A: The devastated landscape of Stalingrad- Russia suffered greatly as a result of the war. 27 million Russians died. Source B: Stalin speaking in February 1945 Victory means, first of all, that our Soviet social system has won. The Soviet social system has successfully stood the test in the fire of war and it has proved its complete vitality. The Soviet social system has proved to be more capable and more stable than the non-Soviet social system. The Soviet social system is a better form of society than nay non-Soviet social system. Source C: Stalin at Yalta Mr. Churchill has said that for Great Britain the Polish question is one of honour. But for the Russians it is a question of honour and security. Throughout history Poland has been the corridor of attack on Russia. Source D: Stalin comments on Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech in 1946 It should not be forgotten that the Germans invaded the USSR through Finland, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary. The Germans were able to invade because governments hostile to the USSR existed in these countries. As a result the USSR suffered a loss of life several times greater than Britain and the USA combined. The Soviet Union can not forget the huge sacrifices of the Soviet people. Is it surprising that the Soviet Union is trying to see that governments loyal to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries. 1. Complete the table below. U [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Factor 6: Winston Churchill's ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech Nine months after Sir Winston Churchill failed to be re-elected as Britain's PM, Churchill [with President Truman] traveled on March 5, 1946, to Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (population of 7,000). Churchill gave his now famous â€Å"Iron Curtain speech. Before this speech, the U. S. nd Britain had been concerned with their own post-war economies and had remained extremely grateful for the Soviet Union's role in ending World War II. It was Churchill's speech, which he titled â€Å"The Sinews of Peace,† that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East. Though many people believe that Churchill coined the phrase â€Å"the iron curtain† during this speech, the term had actually been used for decades (including in several earlier letters from Churchill to Truman). Churchill's use of the phrase gave it wider circulation and made t he phrase popularly recognized as the division of Europe into East and West. 1. Why do you think did Churchill’s words contribute to further East-West tension? 2. Annotate the cartoon below to explain its meaning. Exam Technique Part B Question – KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks Briefly explain the key features of the Iron Curtain. Cause:Event:Consequence:Revision and Overview Effect on relations between the Allies Event 1939 Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Britain and the USSR are enemies, USA is neutral but leaning towards Britain. 1941 Nazi invasion of USSR The USSR changes from an enemy to an ally against the common threat of Nazi Germany. Little direct co-operation. 1944 ‘Lublin Poles’ set up West suspects USSR of a desire to create buffer zone of puppet Communist states 1944 Warsaw Uprising 1945 Liberation of Poland 1945 Yalta Conference 1945 Failed discussions with Molotov concerning Polish government 1945 Arrest of Polish Resistance leaders 1945 Death o f Roosevelt – Truman 1945 US completion of Manhattan Project 1945 Potsdam Conference 1946 Iron Curtain Speech, made by Churchill at Fulton, Missouri Focus on: Learning through Mnemonics: CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR [memory word: BARE] [pBeliefs: ic[pic] Russia was (3 things) ] [pic] a Communist country, [pic] ruled by a dictator [pic] who cared little about human rights. [pic] America was (3 things) [pic] a capitalist [pic] democracy, [pic] which valued freedom. [pAims: ic[pic] Stalin wanted (2 things) ] [pic] reparations from Germany [pic] a buffer of friendly states. [pic] Britain and the USA [led by President Truman] wanted (2 things) [pic] to help Germany recover [pic] to prevent large areas of Europe from coming under Communist control. [pResentment about history ic[pic] The USSR did not trust Britain and the USA (2 reasons) ] [pic] They had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution in 1918. [pic] Stalin thought they had not helped the USSR enough in WW2. [pic] Britain and the USA did not trust the USSR (1 reason) [pic] Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939. [pEvents ic ] †¦.. and in case you are wondering: EVENTS    (9 events): [pYALTA Conference (4 things) ic[pic] February 1945 ] [pic] Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to (5 points): [pic] Divide Germany into 4 zones occupied by France, Britain, USA, USSR. [pic] Hold free elections in Eastern European countries. [pic] Give the USSR territory in Manchuria in return for their help against Japan. [pic] Set up the United Nations. [pic] Set up a government of Communists and non Communists in Poland. [pic] On the surface, everything seemed friendly [pic] Tension behind the scenes [pPOTSDAM Conference (4 things) ic[pic] July 1945 ] [pic] At Potsdam the tensions surfaced. [pic] Stalin, Truman and Atlee agreed to (2 things): [pic] Bring Nazi war criminals to trial. [pic] Divide Germany into 4 occupied zones. [pic] There were also disagreements over (3 things): [pic] Soviet policy in Poland. [pic] The size of German reparations. [pic] Stalin’s demands for a naval base in the Mediterranean. [pSALAMI TACTICS (2 things) ic[pic] 1945–48 ] [pic] ‘Slice-by-slice’, Stalin ensured 7 Eastern European countries had Communist governments. [pic] Albania [pic] (1945) – the Communists took power after the war without opposition [pic] Bulgaria [pic] (1945) – the Communists executed the leaders of all the other parties. [pic] Poland [pic] (1947) – the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into exile. [pic] Hungary    (4 things) [pic] (1947) – Russian troops stayed there. Stalin allowed elections (non-communists won a big majority). The Communists were led by the pro-Russian Rakosi. [pic] Rakosi demanded that grou ps which opposed him should be banned. [pic] He got control of the police, and arrested his opponents.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

On-tap Inspiration Online

On-tap Inspiration Online On-tap Inspiration Online On-tap Inspiration Online By Ali Hale Do you ever find that you have an hour or two free to write, but you just can’t get inspired? Whether you want a compelling idea for your next short story, a topic for your blog or a starting prompt for a poem, your brain just seems to be blank. If only there were some way to get inspiration on-tap†¦ Thankfully there is! It’s called the Internet, and it’s jam-packed with ways to find your next great idea†¦ Twistori Twistori finds Twitter feeds which contain certain words: love, hate, think, believe, feel and wish. To use it, just click on one of the words on the left-hand side, then watch text stream up your screen. If you click rapidly on several words, you can come up with some brilliant juxtapositions – often, putting together two very different thoughts can result in a great piece of writing. These are just some of the lines I saw. Any of these spark off some (maybe slightly crazy) ideas? I think Im inheriting a cat tomorrow I feel like Im riding my exercise bike to nowhere. Why cant I get frequent rider miles and fly to Italy with them? I can tell its already going to be a crazy super long week. I wish I could duplicate myself!! I hate birthdays and i hate signing cards and celebrating them at work. Imagination prompt generator The Imagination prompt generator gives you a random prompt every time you click. Good for non-fiction writers, especially personal essayists. Just click on the ‘Next prompt’ button. If you find writing on one prompt two easy, pick two to combine in the same piece. Here’s a few it came up with for me, and my thoughts on how they could be used. â€Å"List five books that youve read this year.† – If you’re a blogger, pick books on your topic and write a review of them for your blog. â€Å"Without my life partner, Id† – This would be a personal, reflective piece, perhaps something for your journal. It could even be suitable to send to a magazine. â€Å"Can you live without electricity for a month?† – Questions like this one could lead to an article on how dependant we are on electricity, or even a piece of fiction about a TV-and-computer-addicted teenager being taken on a very â€Å"low-tech† family holiday†¦ Random Word Generator combined with Flickr Open these two sites in different tabs or browser windows. The Random Word Generator will give you a word – and Flickr will find you an image. Get your word by hitting ‘New Word’ (it’s easiest to use nouns, but other types of word can yield interesting results.) Then type that word into the search box on Flickr. Pick one of the images that comes up – to get the best of the lot, sort by ‘Most interesting’. Don’t spend too long choosing your image, just pick one, click on the thumbnail in the search results to see the big version, and gaze at it for a while. This could yield ideas for a poem, story, article, even a letter or journal entry. We Feel Fine We Feel Fine asks the question â€Å"What are you feeling?† and finds answers from thousands of blogs. It is a rich source of emotions and ideas, and lots of fun to play with. Give it a minute to load, then click on one of the floating coloured blobs. (You can also change mode to ‘Murmurs’ to see a list of streaming text – try out the different options in the bottom left corner.) You’ll get thoughts like these: â€Å"i sometimes tend to dwell on not having the life i wish i had and then i hear stories like these and it makes me very grateful for everything i have† – This could be a great starting point for a blog post on gratitude, or perhaps for a story where a character undergoes a complete shift in their state of mind when they learn about someone else’s troubles. ‘i feel like for the first time my outlook on life has vastly improved’ – This raises a lot of questions: why has the speaker’s outlook improved? How were things different before? This could make a good start – or even a whole theme – for a story. ‘i don’t feel too guilty about it because i don’t cook breakfast for people who don’t get out of bed before nine thirty’ – You could take this in several directions; perhaps a short story about a mother exasperated with her layabout teenagers, an article about sleeping habits and waking-up times, or a blog post on how to become an early riser (though that topic’s been fairly well covered.) What are your favourite sites for online inspiration? Those are just a few sites that I love, and I’m sure there’s dozens of great ones I’ve not even discovered yet. Share your favourites in the comments below (and if you’re willing, let us know what they’ve inspired you to write!) Or if you try out one of the above sites, tell us what you come up with†¦ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:36 Adjectives Describing LightThe Parts of a WordPresent Participle as Adjective

Monday, October 21, 2019

Canadas global challenge in the 21st century essays

Canadas global challenge in the 21st century essays In my opinion, Canadas global challenge in the twenty- first century is to maintain or better its standard of living. Maintaining a good standard of living will help Canada retain and attract talented, educated people who will maintain and increase our productivity as a nation. In order to maintain this standard of living, Canada should try and enhance its knowledge economy, intellectual capital, it ability to thrive in the knowledge economy, innovation and quality, taxation and innovation and rationalization. In order to better our knowledge economy, Canada should emphasize the importance of education, and continue to fund education in a positive manner. In regards to Canadas intellectual capital, Canadian companies should be innovative and creative and try to bring to the market, products that are unique and superior to those of competitors. To increase Canadas ability to thrive in the knowledge economy, Canadian businesses must foster a sense of teamwork throughout the entire organization. In order to improve on the innovation and quality of products produced by Canadian companies, Canadians must seek improved technology where it is available. To ensure international competitiveness Canadian companies should come up with unique products or services and price them according. Canadian companies must also be dedicated in finding new ways of increasing productivity. In regards to the taxation and innovation present in Canada, although Canadas corporate tax rates are higher then many of it s global competitors because of the good infrastructure provided, Canada still has low labor cost rates. Canadian companies should try and lower taxes on individual companies, because by doing so it would stimulate the economy by encouraging business and consumer spending, foreign investment, and employment. In regards to the rationalization processes found in Canada, Canadian companies should make proper decisions whether or...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

White Fang by Jack London

White Fang by Jack London Free Online Research Papers I read a book called â€Å"White fang† by a man named Jack London. London was trying to explain to the reader the realities of life in the wild for an animal. He focused on getting our attention towards how they adapt to the wild and fend for themselves. This story is about a half wolf/half dog named White Fang. White fang was born out in the wild. He was forced to learn the laws of the wild. He learned how to earn his food and protect himself from harmful animals. White Fang learned his boundaries on what he could do and not do. Though it takes time and effort to learn it has to be done to survive and he accomplished it. I believe that there was a moral in this book. I may be wrong but this is just my opinion. I believe that Jack London is trying to teach us that we all have to learn the laws of life. Were all are going get hurt or get into some sort of trouble. We just need to remember that there is a solution to any problem. I thought that this was a great book for me to read because it helps me get a better understanding of where I stand in the world. It reminds me that I know I will fail, that’s a fact of life. But, if I give something an effort I can accomplish it. I could not say anything to negative about this book because it has a moral in it that I think everyone should learn. If reading this book gave me a better look on life it should help you also. I would recommend this book to anyone. Once you pick it up its one of those books that you don’t ever want to put down. It has exciting parts through the whole book so it keeps you entertained while you’re reading. ? Research Papers on "White Fang" by Jack LondonBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows EssayTrailblazing by Eric AndersonWhere Wild and West MeetStandardized Testing19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsQuebec and CanadaEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenCapital Punishment

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Article Critque Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Critque - Article Example how an elderly man sometimes back came in to cook county hospital’s emergency room with a large and very painful boil that was on his back’s neck. The author of the article told the patient that he had to go through a minor procedure that would lance the boil and hence drain it (Howard, 2009). The patient became ashen and asked the doctor whether the process would hurt him. The doctor told the patient that the moment the treatment will tend to hurt too much he could communicate to him so that he would stop (Lautenbacher & Fillingim, 2004). That factor forms one of the basic platforms that put the article, as well as a doctor’s professionalism in question. From the explanation of the author the expectations that the patient has, determines the patient’s perception on pain. It is clear that from the pain the elderly man was passing through he had all the rights to expect more pain when the treatment will be taking place. It is hence the practitioner’s responsibility to assure the patient that the mode of treatment that he will undergo will take ensure that his pain will be effectively managed (Howard, 2009). The doctor, instead never gave a word of assurance to the patient but he just told the patient would communicate when he will feel the treatment have extensively hurt hence making the patients to perceive that pain will increase instead (Padfield & Novartis, 2003). The doctor’s statement, however, only increased the patient’s expectation of feeling more pain since the doctor mentioned it in his statement. In simple terms, he was eagerly waiting to yell to the doctor that the treatment has hurt extremely as the doctor had stated. The scenario hence puts the doctor’s counseling ability in question. It is essential that doctors should always put their patients on counseling session before putting him or her under treatment so as to assure the patient that the pain he or she is going through will be effectively managed. Doctors should also disclose

Friday, October 18, 2019

Cognitive Development Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Cognitive Development Theory - Essay Example Cognitive development is related to socialization. A child's ability to judge social relations and gain sense of morality are largely dictated by his intellectual readiness and interaction with his environment (Levitt, n. d.)Cognitive development theory focuses on the following concerns: the specificity or generalizability of domains in cognitive ability changes; the occurrence and rate of change or the existence of qualitative different stages; the processes occurring in physical or psychological aspect of an individual; and the factors affecting development.Cognitive development theory makes sense of one's environment and physiological conditions at which an individual interacts and functions to provide a system by which the process of learning and teaching might understood and controlled for maximum and optimum cognitive development.On the nature and development of intelligence, cognitive theorists particularly Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky both consider "the role of environment al factors in shaping the intelligence of children, especially on a child's ability to learn by having certain behaviors rewarded and others discouraged" (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence). Piaget believed that development proceeds from the individual to the social world.Piaget believes that child's knowledge is composed of schemas, or knowledge units, which serve as basis for organizing past and new experiences. These schemas are continuously defined and redefined through "assimilation" and "accommodation". According to Piaget, learning and understanding concepts can only happen when new things are incorporated into old and previously learned concepts. Otherwise, the schema will change to accommodate new knowledge. According to Piaget, cognitive development is a result of learning. Development occurs due to continuous incorporation of things from previous personal experiences. Learning is individually oriented. Development precedes learning. Piaget believed that intelligen ce arises progressively in the baby's repetitive activities. Vygotsky, in contrast believed that instruction is necessary to attain development. Vygotsky believed that development begins at the social level and moves towards individual internalization. Social and cultural factors are important in the development of intelligence. Through "scaffolding", an adult guided activity, a child learns new things gradually until he reaches new level of understanding. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that learning precedes development. Vygotsky might have been aware of instances when a child has understood a concept before they can demonstrate their understanding of it. This happens when a child's motor skills are not yet advanced enough or their language skills are not sophisticated enough to indicate their knowledge and mental processes, hence adult guided instruction is recommended to attain development ( Both theorists however ag ree that development may be triggered by cognitive conflict. Any change in learning skills and knowledge can only happen if the learner has realized the difference and inconsistency with his existing understanding. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children's egocentric speech was an important part of their cognitive development. They differed in their views of the purpose of egocentric speech. Piaget considered egocentric speech suggests that the child is self-centered and unable to consider the point-of-view of others. Vygotsky seen it as a

Law victims and criminal justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Law victims and criminal justice - Essay Example Although the courts serve as decentralised, semi-autonomous groupings of legal professionals, but that does not mean that victim support groups give up in confronting difficulties in predicting how they will follow a new law (Candace, 1993, p. 2). Victim support is criticised for it wishes to monopolise its' services provided to the nation. It is also said that this department is unable to tackle the problems of all of its victims (Duckett, 2003, p. 248). No doubt victim's expectations from the support departments and trial proceedings is to acquire justice while prosecuting and punishing offenders, but that does not mean that victim's sufferings should not be analysed in material form. Victims support organisations (VSO), groups and legal proceedings instead of claiming complete restitution for victim often seek justice alone. VSO does not consider reconciliation and mediation programs as alternatives to criminal punishment; therefore offenders' financial accounts are left untouched. VSOs does not support victim compensation programs, therefore victims who are ineligible for restitution through no fault of their own could be reimbursed at the same level, with their reimbursements paid from a pool of frees or restitution overages. VSOs go through the following processes while fighting for its' victim's justice. Methodological Issues: VSOs seeks evidence, including that from recorded crime, crime surveys, records of convicted offenders, accounts of emotional responses to crime, etc., on a socially constructed basis. Therefore what VSOs concentrate is the data on crime that reflects the way crime has been assembled and taken place. There is no concern about the improperly collected information that reveals the crime scene. However, the VSO team is criticized for working in the following way: Crime Scene Investigation: The VSO is quite popular in taking decisions whether or not to investigate the location of the criminal offense. In some 'incidents' VSOs are right in predicting that a crime has indeed been committed and it is a 'crime scene'. However, in many situations it is observed that VSOs fail to predict the seriousness of the crime and does not consider that one of the initial and primary tasks of the crime scene investigator is to determine whether or not a crime has been committed. In this context the blame must not be put on to VSOs alone as in many European countries including UK, National training centers only conduct short courses for creating Victim support officers and team. Resources, instead of basing on the complexity and seriousness of the alleged incident are dependant on their officers' decision. Crime scene is not analysed on the basis of its full potential. This is true as in many cases it is seen that the police, the field scientist, the laboratory scientist and the prosecutor instead of joining together to produce a set of facts that make it unreasonable to believe any conclusion other than the one the facts support, are giving individual facts. Therefore, the facts taken individually are not exposed to reasonable doubts, helpful in solving the crime.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Adherence Reaction Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Adherence Reaction Paper - Essay Example On Mondays and Fridays, I also include my vitamin B-6 tablet, which I am required to take twice per week. This concludes my morning routine, but not the medication regimen for the day. At night, I take another calcium carbonate and a capsule and a half of Zoloft, which, as it warns, does make me drowsy and helps me get to sleep at night. There are several things that help me adhere to this regimen. I have a pill caddy that I refill every week and carry with me everywhere I go. The rattle of it reminds me to check if I have taken my medication yet while the proper dosage of each pill for each day is already there for me. This is especially helpful for the odd B-6 pill that I am only supposed to take twice per week and is thus easy to forget. During the week, when I have a more regular schedule thanks to my volunteer job at the library, it is relatively easy to keep myself on this regimen. I have to get up at a specific time in the morning anyway in order to get ready for my ‘job’ and the evenings remain relatively quiet so that I can get enough sleep for tomorrow’s work. On the weekends, though, it becomes more difficult because I want to sleep in later, but still get hungry at the same time and I want to stay up later, but the Zoloft continues to make me sleepy. I am motivated to continue taking the medicine, though, out of fear of having a heart attack or simply not be capable of eating comfortably if that horrible heartburn feeling returns. At the same time, there are many things that make me wish I could just scrap the regimen altogether. When I am not volunteering, it is nice to lose all track of scheduling constraints. I like to sleep in late and take my time on various things. On these days, I am usually ravenously hungry when I wake up but have to put this on hold if I want my medications to be effective. This is

Service Recovery Effects on Customer Satisfaction Essay

Service Recovery Effects on Customer Satisfaction - Essay Example Further, the research results showed that their was a correlation between service recovery and customer loyalty. 1. Introduction The concept of service recovery is both a business function and a critical focus point from the marketing perspective. The hotel industry is majorly based on offering intangible services and this makes service recovery an important business strategy. Essentially, service recovery entails the measures that an organization puts in place to respond to failures in service delivery. The hotel industry is prone to several variables that make it necessary to put in place service recovery strategies. Therefore, the effect of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty becomes an important topic of research. To gain insight into this topic, the researcher used questionnaires to collect data which was used to analyze the impact of service delivery on customer loyalty and satisfaction in the hotel industry. 1.1 Research Aim This report aims to examine the im pacts of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel industry. ... 2. Literature Review 2.1 Service Recovery According to Keith (2008), service recovery is the well thought out process solving the issues of aggrieved customer and returning the customer to a state of satisfaction with the product or company. Service delivery can also be thought of as the set of actions a firm takes as a response to poor service quality (Andreasson, 2000). Therefore, service recovery can be considered as the response of a firm to its clients after a product or service failure with the intention of appeasing the aggrieved client and maintain their business value. The ultimate goal of service recovery is to ensure that clients maintain their business relationships with the firm that caused them the initial problem. In every organization, things occur that may have undesired effect on the customer. Hence, a company needs to have systems in place to implement corrective measures whe n things go wrong. The ultimate test of a company’s commitment to quality service is how it handles issues concerning instances of provision of below per services (Craig. 1999). He further argues that organizations need to put in place effective recovery strategies to win back a customers trust after instances problems in service delivery. Service recovery strategies are necessary to ensure that the service failures do not fit into a pattern of failure which might have devastating effects on the business enterprise (Berry 1995). Some studies indicate that excellent initial service is much better than relying on service recovery. However, other studies point out that service recovery has a greater impact on the customer than even the initial service.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Adherence Reaction Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Adherence Reaction Paper - Essay Example On Mondays and Fridays, I also include my vitamin B-6 tablet, which I am required to take twice per week. This concludes my morning routine, but not the medication regimen for the day. At night, I take another calcium carbonate and a capsule and a half of Zoloft, which, as it warns, does make me drowsy and helps me get to sleep at night. There are several things that help me adhere to this regimen. I have a pill caddy that I refill every week and carry with me everywhere I go. The rattle of it reminds me to check if I have taken my medication yet while the proper dosage of each pill for each day is already there for me. This is especially helpful for the odd B-6 pill that I am only supposed to take twice per week and is thus easy to forget. During the week, when I have a more regular schedule thanks to my volunteer job at the library, it is relatively easy to keep myself on this regimen. I have to get up at a specific time in the morning anyway in order to get ready for my ‘job’ and the evenings remain relatively quiet so that I can get enough sleep for tomorrow’s work. On the weekends, though, it becomes more difficult because I want to sleep in later, but still get hungry at the same time and I want to stay up later, but the Zoloft continues to make me sleepy. I am motivated to continue taking the medicine, though, out of fear of having a heart attack or simply not be capable of eating comfortably if that horrible heartburn feeling returns. At the same time, there are many things that make me wish I could just scrap the regimen altogether. When I am not volunteering, it is nice to lose all track of scheduling constraints. I like to sleep in late and take my time on various things. On these days, I am usually ravenously hungry when I wake up but have to put this on hold if I want my medications to be effective. This is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Morality, Ethics & Human Behavior and Determining Moral Behavior Essay

Morality, Ethics & Human Behavior and Determining Moral Behavior - Essay Example These rules are applicable for a single class of human action like political ethics, social ethics and medical ethics. Values are the set ethical ideals which are being created before developing an ethical program (ERC, 2009). A person’s value system helps to built moral beliefs, thus they are integral part of ethical system. Ethical systems are moral theories or philosophies through which one approaches toward making moral decision. These approaches are universal and can be divided into certain categories like Utilitarianism and Deontology. All these ethical systems follow rigid rules and they are highly regulated; these systems are reliable and dependable for asserting moral behavior, they reflect moral thoughts and they are logically impartial (universal), they does not have any value until and unless they are employed thus they not self-servicing. Both teleological and deontological systems are the two most common theories which provide conflicting answer regarding morality. Teleological system takes into account result of the act. Thus consequence of an action is taken into consideration while making decision, in spite of the intention behind the act. Deontological system takes nature of the act into consideration while judging an act, thus they are duty based. If intention behind a decision is morally correct, then what ever be the outcome, it will be considered as a moral decision (White,


Freedom Road Term Paper Essay Howard Fast, the author of the book Freedom Road, was born on November 11, 1914 and died at the age of 89 on March 12, 2003. Fast lived a long and adventurous life. A few of the things he did throughout his lifetime were; joining the American Communist party in 1943, serving a prison term in 1950 for refusing to cooperate with the House Committee on Un-American Activities, and his books were purged from American school libraries. On the other hand some of the positive things that happened in his life was that in 1953, he was rewarded the Stalin Peace Prize and in June of 1937 he married his first wife, Bette Cohen. In adjunction with his adventurous lifestyle, Fast spent most of his time writing. He wrote seven works of nonfiction, two autobiographies, fifty-two novels, five short stories one essay, and seven Masao Masuto Mysteries under the Penn name E.V. Cunningham. As well as writing, he created two films based off novels. ( In the book Freedom Road, Howard Fast tells a fictional story based off the true events that occurred during the Constitutional Convention. The beginning of the book does not start the way most books start. This novel starts by talking about the main character, Gideon, as if we are supposed to know who he is. At first, this is confusing but after a couple of pages, you catch on and start to understand a lot easier. The first thing we are told about in the book is how all of the freed men from the small town of Charleston, had left a few weeks back to go vote. However, neither the town nor the men who left knew what voting actually was. Not knowing what voting was, made everyone who stayed in town very nervous and worried, they were not sure whether or not those men would be coming home or not. Therefore, when they men were spotted walking back into town everyone was extremely excited and could not wait to hear all about this voting thing. However, it seemed that none of the men were really talking, until one of them tells the town that they have some big news to share with everyone. Thus far, into the book, we have yet to hear from the main character, and we have actually been reading from his wives point of view. Once the returning men started talking, the book transitions from the wives point of view to Gideon’s, and that is when things start to pick up. We learn that the men’s big news is the fact that Gideon was elected to be a delegate. Because of his prowess in battle, the other ex-slaves looked to him as their leader in peacetime, but he was an uneducated man who felt himself unsuited for leadership. Yet knowing that his people wanted and needed him, he was determined to make himself fit into the pattern their hopes had cut out for him. However, none of them truly knew what a delegate was or what exactly a delegate did. The only thing they really knew was the Gideon would be receiving a letter once all the votes were counted to tell him if he had won the election. Several months go past in the book and nothing happens, no one in the town hears anything about Gideon being elected. Then one day, the postal man comes around and hands Gideon the letter that he had been waiting for. At this point in the book, we find out how afraid he is to go to Charleston because he is a â€Å"nigger.† He feels as though he is not very smart. He does not want to go â€Å"to city full of white houses†¦ full of white folks making fun†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (p. 16-17). So in order to help him overcome that fear Brother Peter tells him the people need a leader and because of how strong Gideon is physically and mentally, he was chosen to represent them. Because of Brother Peter, Gideon decides to go to Charleston. When he arrives in Charles and he realizes that, he has no money and no place to sleep, so he ends up sleeping under a hay barrel for the first night. It is the next morning when Gideon is offered a couple of cents for some physical labor, he reluctantly accepts the job realizing that he has no other option but to. Because of that money he is able to rent a room for the nights he will be at the convention, buy some food, and clothes that will look appropriate for the convention. Moreover, this is when we start getting into the convention. For the first couple of days Gideon was determined not to speak at the convention, in fear of making a fool of himself in front of all the educated white folk. Yet one day he is outraged and just cannot help himself, he gets up and speaks. Nevertheless, he was still embarrassed that he could not find the right words for what he was saying and for the fact that he sounded very uneducated compared to some of the rest. However when he was given some books that taught him how to read and speak properly, he began to speak out more and voice his opinion. To his surprise he was heard, people started to listen to what he was saying, and even siding with him. Fast explains that the Constitutional Convention worked because, though neither black nor poor whites were overly fond of each other, both realized they had a common enemy in a planter group. With the help of Gideon’s voice, and many others they fought against the planter group. The fought for a system of public schools, the abolition of imprisonment for debt, a simple and fair divorce law, a statute making it impossible for a wifes property to be sold in settlement of her husbands debts, and a measure for universal suffrage – which, came as close as man had ever come to giving women a break and land. Even though he fought for all of these things, the most important ones for Gideon were fair and equal education, and land. Throughout his time at the convention lets his wife slip away from him and stands by while a white northerner helps Gideons oldest son, Jeff, through medical school in Scotland; there was no medical school in America free enough from prejudice to accept him. Gideon loses site at what he loves the most in his life, and lets them all slip away because freedom seems more important than family. Some of the themes of this book are love and understanding, vigilance and perseverance, and hope. The reason why I say that a theme is love and understanding is because in the beginning of the book we hear about how his wife has stayed by his side through thick and thin. She waited for him though the war that he willingly signed up to go fight for. She let him go vote because she realized that even though no one knew exactly what it was, it was something of importance to her husband. In addition, though she has just gotten her husband back and did not want him to leave again; she understood that t his was something that he needed to do. She stood by his side, maybe not physically but mentally, throughout the entirety of the convention. Although this theme is not a main theme in the book, I think that it is a rather important one. The other theme I had mentioned was vigilance and perseverance. I believe these two themes are the main themes of the book, because everyone in this book is persevering in one way or another. Brother Peter insists that Gideon goes to the convention. Everyone at the convention is pushing for exactly what it is that they want written down, and his son is moving to a land unknown to him for an education that he cannot receive where he is. The last theme I had mentioned was hope. I believe that hope is the most predominant theme throughout the book, because every single person has hope. In the beginning, the town and the men who left were hoping that this voting thing was not going to get them killed. Gideon’s wife hoped that he would not leave her again, and when he did, she hoped that he would be okay and that she would get to see him again. The people of the convention all held on to the hope that what they say and what they want will be written down into a law. Then we have Gideon himself, he has hope that he will be able to read, write and give all freed slaves the right to an education. The theme of hope plays repeatedly throughout the story. All of the stories characters played a large role in the book, everyone influenced the book in one way or another, but a few of the characters that stood out to me are Brother Peter, Gideon, and Cardozo. The first character that really stands out to me is Brother Peter. I think the fact that he did not stand up and ask people to vote for him, as a delegate was a selfless act. All of the people in town look up to him and ask him for advice, they would have easily voted for him as they did Gideon, but brother Peter knew that Gideon would have more to learn from being a delegate than he would. Brother Peter also knew that Gideon would have more of a fight in him than he would. I th ink the reason why Brother Peter was so pushy about Gideon going to the convention was that he knew that Gideon would get things done. The other character that stands out to me is Gideon. Gideon starts in the beginning of the book being illiterate, but pushes though the struggle of learning how to read and write by himself. He also struggles with the fact that he is poor and does not measure up to some of the other people in the convention. Gideon fights for education and freedom so much that he lets go of everything that he truly loves. He lets his wife slip away and his son leaves. He forgets that he has people waiting for him back home. Even though I hate that he loses sight of the place he came from and his family, he over comes many struggles and fights to achieve his goals. The other character that stands out to me is Cardozo. Cardozo is the first person at the convention that comes up and talks to Gideon. I like the way Cardozo sees things differently, he is a black man that has been free all his life, got an education, socialized around white people his entire life. Therefore, when he first talks to Gideon he wants him to explain why black people should have en education. Once Gideon explains himself Cardozo understands, and helps Gideon as much as he can. He introduces him to all the right people, he supports him in the convention, and most of all he gave Gideon books that taught him how to read and write. He gave Gideon what he had come to fight for. I think it takes very kindhearted people to stand by someone who cannot even form the words to fight by themselves. Before I actually started reading this story, I thought it was going to be another extremely boring history book, however once I started I could not put it down. The way this story was written was fabulous. The way Fast incorporated Gideon’s thoughts, his writing and speaking was interesting. I loved that the real facts of what happened during that time was not just thrown in our faces, it was mixed into the fictional story that kept you interested. I think the way that we are lead through the past so effortlessly was a fascinating way to keep reader interested. I like the way Fast incorporated all the different kinds of people at the convention. In the story, the laws of freedom, education, and land would not have got through without the black folks and poor white folks being there. I think the way Fast portrayed Gideon, as a strong illiterate freedman was a great way to grab the reader’s attention and walk us through the past in a wonderful way. I think the only thing that Fast is really missing is more of Gideon speaking. Fast does an excellent narration of illiterate folks, but he does not do enough of it. Overall, this book was great, I will most likely be keeping it, and not reselling it so I can re-read it repeatedly.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Clients Description And Functioning Social Work Essay

Clients Description And Functioning Social Work Essay The client is a sixteen-year-old African American female who is pregnant with her second child. The client attends junior high school. The client lives with her mother, age unknown, who is unemployed. B. Setting Peak View Behavioral Health is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Peak View Behavioral Health is a psychiatric hospital dedicated to providing quality care to promote growth and structure for clients and families (Peak View Behavioral Health, 2012). Peak View Behavioral Health treats adults ages eighteen and older and, in January 2013, will begin to serve children ages four to seventeen. The hospitals services include acute psychiatric care, partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient services, substance abuse, twenty-four hour assessment and Electroconvulsive Therapy. C. Reason for Referral The client was referred to Each One Teach One, an alternative school, by her prior public school principal. The client is pregnant with her second child and has been suspended from the public school. Adolescent pregnancy, intended or not, can have negative consequences. Common consequences of adolescent pregnancy include dropping out of high school, living in poverty, relying on public welfare, and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress, as compared to their same age peers (Stoiber, 2005). The consequences of the clients pregnancies are reflected by her situation. She has been referred to an alternative school and experiences psychological stress which impacts her relationships. The principal was aware of the clients first pregnancy, although no previous interventions were attempted. The principal suspects the client is having difficulty in her home life, although she will not disclose to the principal how she became pregnant twice. Client is not happy about the suspension from public school. Client does not understand why she is being suspended because she feels as though she has not done anything wrong. Although she is upset about the suspension from her public school, she does seem interested in the referral to the alternative school as evidenced by her accepting the referral and attending Each One Teach One. One of the highlighted strengths in the lives of African Americans is their strong educational or achievement orientation (Boyd-Franklin, 2006). Although the client is experiencing a negative social and economic environment, she appears to be motivated to better herself. The clients mother does not support the referral for client to attend the alternative school. The clients mother encourages the client not to attend school and get on the Welfare. D. Clients Description and Functioning Client is of average height and pregnant. Client attends school well groomed, e.g, hair brushed, teeth brushed, showered, and wears clothes that are clean and well-fitted. Although the client is pregnant, she is able to walk to school and walk up and down the stairs to her apartment without difficulty. Client took necessary testing precautions to be tested for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) after learning her father passed away from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Consequently, client tested positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Client does not speak grammatically correct English as evidenced by client stating sentences such as I is learning, I does my work, and what this one is? Although client reports she sits in the back of the classroom, does not open a book and does not participate, clients math teacher reports client does well in math. Client has difficulty reading. The clients mother reports client as stupid and not ever amounting to anything. Client identifies one of her strengths as cooking. Client reports auditory and visual hallucinations in the form of vampires telling her you are one of us. Client fantasizes about being white, living rich and famous, and being saved from her current situation. E. Physical and Economic Environment The clients mother is unemployed and receives welfare of an unknown monthly amount. Clients mother has custody of clients first child in order to receive aide on that child. Client attended public school until suspended and will be attending Each One Teach One. In the evenings, client cooks and cleans for the household. Client describes her mothers day as a beached whale lying on the couch. Client states her mother eats, watch T.V., eats, watch T.V. The client and mother live in a two bedroom apartment, rent unknown, in Harlem. Client describes the neighborhood as the ghetto and consumed with crack heads. The clients apartment building is sprayed with graffiti. Americans visualize the ghetto as where the black people live representing a poor, susceptible to crime, drug-infected and violent part of the city (Anderson, 2012). The client defines her neighborhood as the ghetto due to drug activity and crime. F. Current Social Functioning 1. Family Situation. The client and mother live in apartment together. The clients mother has custody of the clients first born child and claims that child for welfare purposes, although the child actually lives with clients grandmother. The clients father previously lived in the home with client and mother prior to moving out. Clients relationship with her mother is volatile. The clients mother reported she should have aborted her. Client cooks for her mother, cleans the home, and runs errands for her mother when needed. Client fantasizes of wanting to be on the cover of a magazine or in a music video. Client has current and past history of sexual and physical abuse. Client was raped by her father. The clients first child, and the second child she is pregnant with, are products of rape by the clients father. The clients mother is aware of the rape of the client by her father but blames the client for taking my man. The clients mother also blames the client for clients father moving out of the house. The clients mother also admitted to sexually abusing client, stating who was going to please me. Client has also experienced physical abuse at the hands of her mother. The clients mother has slapped her and thrown a frying pan towards her head. The clients mother is verbally abusive calling client names such as bitch, whore, good for nothing and stupid. 2. Current Sexual/Emotional Relationship. Client reports never having a boyfriend but wishes she had a light skin boyfriend with nice hair. 3. Occupational/School Situation. Client has been suspended from public school and referred to Each One Teach One, an alternative school, due to her second pregnancy. Client enjoys math and does well in math, as reported by her math teacher. Client has difficulty reading and tested at a second grade reading level. Client has difficulty with her peers as evidenced by clients physical aggression towards peers, i.e., slapping, punching, and cursing at her peers. Client has obedient relationships towards teachers and principal as evidenced by following directions without defiance. 4. Other Social Relationships and Social Roles and Satisfaction. Client reports never having a boyfriend and does not have any friends. Client takes pride in being a mother but is not able to be a mother to her first child due to her own mother not allowing her child to live in their home because of the childs developmental disability. Client has expressed wanting to get her child back. Client does not currently attend a church but fantasizes of participating in the church choir. For generations, African Americans have used spirituality and religion as a crucial instrument for survival (Boyd-Franklin, 2006). One role of the African American church is to act as a refuge, as a sanctuary in an often times unfriendly world (Boyd-Franklin, 2010). Although client does not currently attend church, in her fantasies, she finds the church as a safe place from her negative and hostile environment. 5. Medical/Psychological. Client is pregnant with her second child. Clients first pregnancy resulted in a female with developmental disabilities. At time of clients referral to Each One Teach One, client had not yet seen a doctor for her second pregnancy. Client found out from her mother her father passed away from AIDS and client tested positive for HIV. Clients mother refuses to be tested for HIV because she believes she has not contracted the disease because she and clients father did not engage in anal sex. 6. Legal Issues. Client does not have any legal issues at this time. G. Personal and Family History relevant to current focus Client was born in November 1971 in Harlem. Mother reported client would sleep in the bed with her and the clients father. Client was bottle fed as a baby, as clients father would drink the breast milk from clients mothers breast. The clients mother reported client was three years old at the time of her first sexual abuse by her father. Client has experienced sexual abuse by her father and mother, and physical and verbal abuse from her mother. Individuals who are of lower economic status are more likely to experience traumatic events, and African Americans are more likely to be of lower socioeconomic status (Gapen et al., 2011). Clients mother reports there is no alcohol or substance use in the home. II. Assessment Psychological Functioning The clients intellectual functioning is at a moderate level as evidenced by grammatically incorrect language and a second grade reading level. In terms of the clients psychological functioning, her ego functions are moderately compromised. The egos ability to unify and combine mental processes is called ego functions (Berzoff, Flanagan, Hertz, 2011). Reality testing is the egos ability to recognize and agree with physical and social reality. The most important aspect of this function is the ability to tell the difference between internal reality and external reality (Berzoff, Flanagan, Hertz, 2011). The clients function of reality testing is compromised at times, as evidenced by auditory and visual hallucinations and retreats to her fantasy world. The clients ego function of controlling impulses is also compromised, as evidenced by aggressiveness towards peers. The egos attempt to maintain an accurate level of positive self-worth in the face of stressful or aggravating circumstances is self-esteem regulation (Berzoff, Flanagan, Herzt, 2011). The clients self-esteem could be defined as low due to physical, sexual, and verbal abuse. The clients low self-esteem can be seen through her fantasies of wanting to be someone else, e.g White, famous. Defense mechanisms guard the self from danger, actual or perceived (Berzoff, Flanagan, Hertz, 2011). In terms of defense mechanisms, the clients defense mechanisms could be classified as immature. The clients immature defense of dissociation, where a painful memory is detached from the feeling, is evidenced by the clients fantasies of herself leading a different life (Berzoff, Flanagan, Hertz, 2011). B. Emotional Functioning Between nine and twelve months of age children begin to develop Internal Working Models to characterize emotions and expectations resulting from interactions and communication between infant and caregiver (Riggs, 2010). Consistent with the notion emotional abuse negatively impacts Internal Working Models and the ability to regulate affect, research suggests emotional abuse places children at risk for poor self-concept and disorders of emotional regulation and impulse control (Riggs, 2010). In regards to the clients emotional functioning, her limited range of emotional expression and poor impulse control are demonstrated by her use of aggression and anger towards peers. The clients negative coping responses can be seen through her fantasies, as she cannot verbally express how she is feeling. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment styles are used because they are adaptive in relation to the behavioral responses of their attachment figure (Riggs, 2010). One type of insecure attachment pattern is disorganized attachment. Disorganized attachment can be connected to child abuse, lack of resolution to trauma or loss by parent, and maternal frightening behavior and psychopathology (Riggs, 2010). The clients attachment pattern can be classified as disorganized due to her experience of sexual abuse, by her mother and father, and physical abuse, by her mother. The clients disorganized attachment can also be attributed to her mothers lack of support in regards to her sexual abuse by her father, i.e., blaming the client for the abuse. Evidence of clients insecure attachment in early childhood can also be seen, currently, through clients dismissiveness, i.e., that she takes care of her mother despite the abuse, low self-concept (Berzoff, Flanagan, Hertz, 2011). C. Social/Behavioral Functioning Attachment insecurity, due to emotionally abusive parenting, adds to poor social functioning. In early attachment relationships, children begin to develop the skills needed to build future social relationships, such as self-awareness, empathy, negotiation, and conflict resolution. The security of attachment influences many areas of interpersonal relationships, including effectiveness in peer groups, reciprocity in relationships, empathy, problem solving, conflict resolution, and establishing close and intimate relationships with peers (Riggs, 2010). The clients social isolation, as evidenced by her lack of peer group, demonstrates the clients insecure attachment with caregivers. The clients lack of distrust in peers and adults is displayed through clients aggressive behaviors. D. Environmental Issues and Constraints Affecting the Situation The client lives in a neighborhood in which she would consider the ghetto. Client lives with her mother, although the relationship is unstable. Children with a very insecure attachment to their mothers are more likely than other children to live in high-risk families and environments (Kwako, Knoll, Putnam, Trickett, 2010). The client has experienced sexual, physical, and verbal abuse from her caregivers. African American families experience higher rates of poverty than families of other races. Living in poverty increases the risk of exposure to trauma and trauma is found more often in African American populations (Graves, Kaslow, Frabutt, 2010). The clients turbulent home environment, unsafe neighborhood, and lack of social supports and resources exacerbates clients distrust in others, social isolation, and negative self-concept. E. Motivation and Commitment to Services The clients mother does not support client attending school and would rather client take welfare services. Despite the clients mothers lack of support, the client is motivated to attend school to continue her education and be a positive mother for her children. F. Workers Understanding of Clients Presenting Situation/Problem The client is a sixteen year old, African-American teenage mother of two. The client has experienced severe childhood sexual trauma by her mother and father. The clients two pregnancies are results of sexual abuse from the clients father. The client lacks emotional support from her mother and is often ridiculed by her mother in terms of her appearance, intellectual functioning and overall being. Emotional abuse in the attachment relationship significantly increases the likelihood of developing insecure attachment, which is proven to be linked to low empathy and reciprocity, hostility or aggression and impulsivity, exploitation or ridicule by peers, social withdrawal or exclusion from group activities, and general patterns of un-relatedness and isolation (Riggs, 2010). The client lacks any type of social support from peers and, often times, interactions with peers result in aggressive confrontation. Clients distrust in peers and adults is evidenced by lack of nurturing relationships. Up to this point, client has not accessed community resources. Previous experience with racism frequently prevents African Americans from accessing assistance and/or services from organizations which historically have safeguarded Caucasians (Graves, Kaslow, Frabutt, 2010). Clients mother is distrusting of community institutions which may lead to clients inability to access support. According to attachment theory, a child forms representational models, i.e., internal working models, of attachment figures, of the self, and of self-in-relation to others based on their relationship with primary caregivers. When a childs caregiver responds in a sensitive, loving, and consistent manner, a working model of other as loving, reliable, and supportive is internalized. On the other hand, experiencing emotional abuse and neglect may instill damaging beliefs about the self, e.g., I am stupid, I am not worthy of attention, which may result in maladaptive models of self, other, and self in-relation to others. Instead of developing a working model of the self as worthy of love and attention, negative models of the self as worthless, incompetent, or powerless may result (Wright, Crawford, Castillo, 2009). Due to the clients mothers unstable and inconsistent caregiving patterns, client has developed a low concept of self, as evidenced by the clients feelings of unworthiness to h ave or accept any type of relationships. Although the client has experienced severe childhood trauma, insecure attachments with caregivers, and family and community instability, the client appears to be moderately resilient. Resilience refers to patterns of positive adaptation during or following major adversity or risk (Lopez Snyder, 2011). Faced with two pregnancies, unsupportive and abusive caregivers, and lack of social support, the client continues to be motivated to pursue her education, regain custody of her first child, and become a caring and loving mother to her children. III. Evidenced Based Practice Search This author began the search using the Google Scholar search engine with the term psychodynamic treatment for female African American adolescents of sexual abuse. This search yielded articles related to interventions for substance abuse. The same search term was used again but the term intervention was exchanged for the term treatment. This search yielded articles on cognitive behavioral interventions. This author then moved to using the search engine PsyhInfo. Terms including psychodynamic treatment, psychodynamic intervention, African American, adolescent and sexual abuse were again interchanged to aide in the search. This author then added the term sexual abuse survivor to the search. This search began to yield interventions related to psychodynamic interventions. This author began finding articles related to psychodynamic groups as a psychodynamic intervention. Continuing to use the PsychInfo search engine, this author then used search terms psychodynamic groups, adolescents, sexual abuse survivor and African American. This author was able to yield articles related to psychodynamic groups. This author then moved to using the University of Southern California Library to continue the search. This author again used the terms psychodynamic groups, adolescents, sexual abuse survivor and African American to yield further articles in regards to psychodynamic groups. This author was able to accumulate six articles in regards to psychodynamic group intervention. Overall, this author found it extremely difficult to find, in the literature, psychodynamic interventions specific to African American adolescents who have experienced sexual abuse. IV. Intervention Plan In the first years of childhood, the family is responsible for the care and development of the child. In healthy families, children learn they can depend of their environment to provide emotional security and physical safety. Children then gain behaviors which allow them to nurture their own emotional and physical health free from parents or caregivers. Poor health also can develop early in life. Children who live in families with characteristics such as family conflict, i.e., frequent episodes of anger or aggression, and lack of nurturing, i.e., relationships which are cold, unsupportive, and neglectful, can have negative consequences on mental and physical health (Repetti, Taylor, Seeman, 2002). Unfortunately, due to clients exposure to an abusive and un-nurturing environment, she has developed poor mental health, as seen by her moderate level of defense mechanisms, poor self-concept and lack of support. Due to the clients insecure attachment with caregivers, which has led to lack of support and untrusting nature to others, the intervention employed will be psychodynamic group psychotherapy. Because of clients young age, client will be more suitable for time limited psychodynamic group psychotherapy, which occurs between twelve and thirty sessions (Wise, 2009). The format used for psychodynamic group psychotherapy is verbal. The basis of the group should be to feel and talk, rather than act. Because it is a psychodynamic therapy, the therapist should wait for the group interactions to occur freely and then comment when appropriate (Wise, 2009). During the process of psychodynamic group psychotherapy, the therapist will attempt not to set agendas but follow the suggestions of the group. The belief is the group process will eventually lead to the most emotionally charged subjects if allowed to proceed without interruption. The therapist in the psychodynamic group psychotherapy session will attend to the group and individual members based on how the session begins (Rutan, 1992). The implementation of the psychodynamic group psychotherapy intervention is community based, therefore the client will need to access community organizations to utilize the treatment intervention. As previously noted, the client has not accessed community resources thus far. Another hurdle the client will have to overcome in order to maximize optimum results from the psychodynamic group psychotherapy intervention is a proper match to therapist leading the group and participation. Because client is untrusting of other others it may be difficult to engage client in group psychotherapy process. A therapist who creates an environment of acceptance, understanding and trust, and provides empathy and responsiveness will have a better chance of keeping and engaging challenging members (Gans Counselman, 2010). The goal of psychodynamic group psychotherapy is to make aware parts of the unconscious which result in negative distortions in present day perceptions (Rutan, 1992). Furthermore, goals of treatment are to assist in overcoming resistance to experiencing, expressing and understanding emotion. The psychodynamic group psychotherapy model allows for resolving the tension between suppression of emotions and explosiveness. The group format also allows for members to work together to manage and contain feelings (Wise, 2009). This aspect of psychodynamic group psychotherapy will be beneficial to client, as she has difficulty expressing her emotions, as evidenced by aggression towards peers. Although the client will gain emotional regulation skills through the psychodynamic group psychotherapy intervention, this will not be her main treatment goal. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is also another way for individuals to interact within a system of relationships. This is beneficial due to most presenting problems having a relational context. Allowing individuals to interact and then reflect gives the individual the opportunity to use the group as a place to observe and change patterns (Wise, 2009). The client has expressed a desire to have safe, nurturing and loving relationships with others, but due to low self-concept does not feel worthy of such relationships. The clients goal for psychodynamic group psychotherapy will be to increase number of quality relationships from zero to at least two by the conclusion of the group sessions. The clients relationships will be measured by her own self-report, as well as therapist observations of her interactions and relationships with fellow members of the group and development of social skills. The catalyst for change in psychodynamic group psychotherapy includes change by imitation, i.e, learning by observing others, identification, i.e., unconsciously taking on traits or characteristics of others, and internalization. The therapeutic process develops using confrontation, explanation, interpretation and working through (Wise, 2009). Additionally, other therapeutic aspects which are addressed include support, self-revelation, learning, and self-understanding, with interpersonal learning as the utmost important (Wise, 2009). Because the client has developed negative internal working models, due to insecure attachment with caregivers, i.e. mother and father, the interactions with others in the group setting may begin to assist client in developing higher self-concept and more nurturing relationships. V. Discussion, Analysis and Rationale for Interventions Chosen Psychodynamic group psychotherapy was chosen as the intervention for the client due to her experience of sexual abuse by caregivers. Time limited, as well as ongoing psychodynamic group psychotherapy has been effective in treating women with a history of sexual abuse, due to the opportunity for the individual to reduce the feelings of isolation, guilt, and shame. An individual is able to effectively work through feelings when the individual is able to share their experience in a therapeutic environment comprised of compassion and acceptance. The psychodynamic group psychotherapy process provides an individual with the ability to incorporate a new object experience without devaluation or ridicule, while at the same time abandoning previous attachments which were associated with the original event and emotion (Nusbaum, 2000). When an individual is abused, the person tends to identify with the unloving, aggressive, and immoral characteristics of the superego rather than the gentle, loving and protective characteristics. The individual may interpret the caregivers failure to nurture and protect adequately as a sign they are unworthy and unlovable (Nusbaum, 2010). Evidence of these characteristics can be seen in the clients low self-concept and feelings of unworthiness to have any type of relationship. Within the psychodynamic group psychotherapy process, the group can demonstrate appropriate levels of protectiveness, love and concern to its members. Negative feelings often experienced by individuals with sexual abuse can often be eased through disclosure of the traumatic experience. The group can then provide corrective superego functions by not allowing its members to blame themselves for the experience, which may have been unavoidable and not their fault (Nusbaum, 2000). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy also deepens the alliance between group members and facilitates the development of relationships which can be observed and analyzed in the context of interpersonal fears and roadblocks. Furthermore, in psychodynamic group psychotherapy individuals can identify interpersonal conflicts and work through primary defense structures which are run by fears of trusting. Additionally, because abuse and neglect tend to occur in dysfunctional families, by successfully working through emotional conflict the psychodynamic group offers the opportunity for interpersonal learning and development of social skills, which are usually not modeled in dysfunctional homes (Nusbaum, 2000). This author is unable to implement the psychodynamic group psychotherapy intervention with the client but can visualize how the intervention would unfold with the client. In the first sessions this author would attempt to create a trusting, nurturing and safe environment where client would feel she could engage in the group process and share personal experience. According to psychodynamic theory, personality is formed developmentally. In this model each stage of development builds on the previous stage and each stage affects the following one. It is important to note in the therapeutic process, defects in earlier developmental stages can be corrected if that stage can be recalled, relieved and be affectively re-experienced and corrected in the here and now (Rutan, 1992). It will be pivotal for the clients treatment for her to share feelings, emotions and past experiences in order facilitate positive transformation. This author would predict the client would be difficult to engage initially due to her mistrust in others and feelings of unworthiness. After consistent nurturing, accepting, trusting and safe experiences in the psychodynamic group, this author would see the client begin to engage in the group process. Once the client begins to share personal experiences, feelings and emotions this author would utilize a specific intervention, the here and now. The here and now technique would allow this author to use the clients past experience to understand and explain occasions when she unconsciously repeats the past or misperceives the present based on what she has learned in the past (Rutan, 1992). This technique would allow self-learning and self-understanding in regards to how her past abuse and neglect as affected her current relationships. This author expects transference will likely surface in the therapeutic process with the client. Transference can be defined as the misrepresentation of present object relationships on the basis of early object relationships (Rutan, 1992). Transference will be beneficial in the therapeutic process with the client. It will allow for this author to gather information and explore the nature of early relationships based on the characteristics the client transfers on to this author (Rutan, 1992). Through the psychodynamic group psychotherapy process the clients main goal will to be to form quality, nurturing and trusting relationships. Relationships are important in forming personality, causing psychopathology, and curing psychiatric symptoms. As individuals develop in the psychodynamic group they are forming important relationships and, while doing so, every part of their character is emerging. Individuals reveal their defense mechanisms and transferences while, in turn, receiving feedback from the therapist and other members. There may not be any other therapeutic process where so much data is available to an individual about themselves as in psychodynamic group psychotherapy (Rutan, 1992).