Monday, September 30, 2019
Strategies to discourage social loafing: Social loafing can be described as a tendency of individuals to exert less effort when they are part of a group. Since, all individuals are sharing their efforts to accomplish set goals; each member of the group contributes less than he/she would if he/she was individually accountable. One of the major reasons behind this behavior is that individuals think that they are not being acknowledged for their efforts. Such believing brings their moral down and therefore team members see no reason to reach high-level performance while working within the team. This behavior also develops when individual responsibilities within a team are not well-defined, or when management cannot track performance with precision. To correct and eliminate social loafing within the team players and to provide positive advantage to organization, the following steps can be taken. By defining clear roles and responsibilities to each team member in the beginning of the project will help each individual to achieve set goals and objectives. Ã¢â¬â By observing each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution closely. -Set up individual assignments that reflect results toward the end project. -Assign individual tasks according to his/her skill set and strengths. This approach will promote the individual to accomplish assigned tasks in an effective manner. -Employ team reviews and member evaluations on regular basis. Simplify the rol es and responsibilities for the team to follow. -Support and persuade team members with loyalty. -Provide timely feedback to each team member on assigned tasks. -Using the management by walking around method can also reduce the social loafing within the team individuals. This practice will help management obtaining a better understanding of the work being done outside as well as building relationship with employees. Similarly, team members will learn that management is coming around anytime that will reduce the possible chances of social loafing.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ã¯Â»Â¿The characters in Aeschylus’ Agamemnon create only fear and no pity in each other and in the audience
I agree with this statement to a certain extent, however, I think it does not represent the whole of the Agamemnon. I think that what invokes pity, are events, rather than characters, that have preceded the play. There are mixes of passive and fearsome characters in the Agamemnon. Clytemnestra and Aegisthus are an example of fearsome characters, when she kills Agamemnon and Cassandra, and he threatens the chorus near the end of the play. The chorus are relatively passive throughout the play until aggressive actions towards Aegisthus at the end.The first idea of fear that does appear in the play is with the prologue of the play with the watchman; Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever I find myself shifting my bed about at night, wet with dew, unvisited by dreams because fear instead of sleep stands at my side to stop my eyes closing fast in slumberÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (l. 13) This is immediately demonstrative of the fear that his mistress, Clytemnestra, instils in him. It affects the watchman so much so, that hi s fear stops his Ã¢â¬Å"eyes closing fast.Ã¢â¬ This is the first indicator in the play that Clytemnestra is stepping into her role as the Ã¢â¬ËIron LadyÃ¢â¬â¢ of Greece. We know that she has set up a type of communication which allows her to know whether or not the Greeks have beat the Trojans, and whether or not their coming back. This gives her time to prepare her trap. I think for this reason, she probably emphasised the importance of the watchmanÃ¢â¬â¢s role, and the punishment that would be inflicted should he fail his task.The chorus also demonstrate fear Ã¢â¬Å"There were times I thought IÃ¢â¬â¢d faint with longing [for the Greek armies to return]Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have long had silence as my medicine against harm l. 539. Ã¢â¬ This is not implicit as to who will Ã¢â¬Å"harmÃ¢â¬ them if they ever break their silence, but they are obviously trying to hide something from the herald and the Ã¢â¬Å"kingsÃ¢â¬ that have returned. The dramatic irony in this play also shows how the audience and the chorus know something that the herald and the kings do not know.It seems like Clytemnestra has secured their silence, to make sure that the men returning home do not know about the doom that awaits their King Agamemnon. An abstract idea of fear that is presented by Aeschylus is through Clytemnestra, by demonstrating the potency of fear, and how it can make people do things that they would not otherwise do. She makes Agamemnon step on the purple fabric through her.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
For over centuries mankind have been suffering from organ failure. Even since before B.C., the organ transplant is widespread (History.com Staff, 2012). As a result of the improvements of this procedure to be more safer and ubiquitous, nowadays there are less patients with transplant rejection. It is a known fact that people are more likely to need a transplant than donating bodily parts. The British Government highlights an average of 18 people die each day waiting for transplants that cannot take place because of the organ shortage. Unfortunately, this number is increasing (Clark and Clark, 2013). 90% of the UK citizens believe in organ donation but only 30% of this number had actually taken action by registering for organ donation (Clark and Clark, 2013). It is proven that in general, the system in most nations fails to decrease the number of people who are on the waiting list, suffering each day. Therefore, the government should take precautions in trying new developments in order to change this situation. Currently, there is a debate on whether organs should be donated or legalizing organ selling. This essay would give a close look between the pros and cons of both sides, showing that a well regulated organ trade might work more efficiently than the other. All of the religions support living or deceased organ donation and even sometimes encourage people while some of them leaves the decision to individuals (NHS Blood and Transport, 2005). The reasons for most religions to accept the idea of organ donation are: 1) it will help the recipient with positive assurance 2) it does not cause damage to the donor 3) the donor can donate the organ or tissue willingly and without commercial profit. (Budiani and Shibly, 2006). According to these reasons, a compromise can be seen with some ethical compensations for donation in order to find a benefit for the patient. Pope John Paul II indicates Ã¢â¬ buying and selling human organs violates the dignity if the human.Ã¢â¬ (Friedman and Friedman, 2006). When it has been looked closely in more patients interest, it can be seen a support has been given to donation; however, because of the moral issue of giving a price to human body, the same support cannot be given for legalizing the trade and finding a matching donor for people in aÃ shorter period of time. Despite the fact that there is a significant increase in organ donors, the number of people are on the list is rising with a bigger proportion which indicates that a patient on the waiting list will wait longer than it used to be (Cohen, 2006). For a person who is fighting a problem with malfunctioning an organ, every second is important. These people are constantly in pain and every passing second red uces their chances (Friedman and Friedman, 2006)Ã¢â¬ ¦ Every religion is against leaving people in misery for such a long time while the pain can be eased. Selling organs would take less time to find a compatible donor and patients would spend less time in misery. For example, patients with kidney failure are suffering everyday while they are trying to live with dialysis. It causes not only physical and psychological pain but also economical obstacles (Peers, 2007). The thought of people with financial means further exploiting underprivileged people and leaving them suffering is rather unethical. It brings out the possibility of poor man can experience injustice in the future due to lack of organs with a chance of not gaining enough money they predicted they would. Certain patients may suffer from fatigue and other debilitating symptoms associated with patients with only one functioning kidney. This means peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health would be in danger for a minor benefit (Ang, 2007). Even though this might cause a problem in the future for the people who sell their bodily parts, the black markets are still currently available. The same complication might come up to the surface although it is illegal and it has been highly regulated (Scheve,2008). It is almost impossible to fully exterminate this black marketing but making it legal and giving the control of this trade to licensed professionals to evaluate donor-patient compatibility will help taking the organs and tissues out without any safety risk for the donor (Peers, 2012). It is an undeniable fact that if there is a market, the majority would want to profit while saving someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s life. However, the waiting list will not disappear but according to the predictions, it will surely reduce the number of people on the list. Additionally making this as a legal trade, it would prevent desperate patients from being cheated or from paying more money than they might have to when possessing from the black market (Peers, 2012). Iran proves these provisions. Even though itÃ¢â¬â¢s system have been criticised by many experts, their system works under theÃ stateÃ¢â¬â¢s regulation and non-profit organisations as CASKP and the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases which facilitate the process by helping the trade and are checking the eligibility as well as ensuring a fair commerce (Dehghan, 2012). Many will protest that an organ market will lead to exploitation and unfair advantages for the rich and powerful. People are only considering the benefits of rich people would get. But these are the characteristics of the current illicit organ trade (Gregory, 2011). Living people can donate part of the lung, liver, intestines, or pancreas. Even though there is some financial pressure on people who wants to sell their organs, in the end it is a choice which has been given by free will. It would improve the financial stability of many. The wealthy would not be the only ones benefitting (Libertarian Jew,2013). To conclude, due to the length of this essay only major aspects of both sides can be considered. Donation would be more ethical and fair compared to selling but sometimes in order to save a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life only medical ethics can be fallowed. During this essay, the ethical issues which refuses the legalization of trade market was actually due to religious beliefs. The medical ethics would be only giving the best treatment and health care to the general public. Selling would also decrease the poverty and the misery of donor-recipient respectively. If it is controlled a trading market might give benefits to both sides. REFERENCES: Ang, A (20 March 2007) Selling OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Organs: The Pros and Cons, Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/selling-ones-organs-pros-cons-243748.html [Accessed at 2 March 2014] Budiani, D. Shibly, O. (October 2006) Islam, Organ Transplants, and Organs Trafficking in the Muslim World: Paving a Path for Solutions, Retrieved from: cofs.org/home/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Budiani_and_Shibley.doc [Accessed at 1 April 2014] Clark, M. Clark, T. (13 June 2013) Selling Your Organs: Should it be Legal? Do You Own Yourself?, Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/marciaclark/2013/06/13/selling-your-organs-should-it-be-legal-do-you-own-yourself/ [Accessed at 2 March 2014] Cohen, E. (June 2006) Organ Transplantation: Defining The Ethical and Policy Issues, Retrieved from:https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/background/staff_cohen.html [Accessed at 1 April 2014] Dehghan, S.K. (27 May 2012) Kidneys for sale: poor Iranians compete to sell their organs, Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/27/iran-legal-trade-kidney [Accessed at 28 March 2014] Friedman, E.A. Friedman, A.L. (15 February 2006) Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons, Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v69/n6/full/5000262a.html [Accessed at 17 March 2014] Gregory, A. (9 November 2011) Why Legalizing Organ Sales Would Help to Save Lives, End Violence, Retrieved from: http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/11/why-legalizing-organ-sales-would-help-to-save-lives-end-violence/248114/ [Accessed at 17 March 2014] History.com Staff (21 February 2012) Organ Transplants: A Brief History, Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/news/organ-transplants-a-brief-history [Accessed at 2 March 2014] Libertarian Jew (17 April 2013) Making a Case for Legalizing a Market in Human Organ Sales, Retrieved from: http://libertarianjew.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/making-case-for-legalizing-market-in.html [Accessed at 17 March 2014] NHS Blood and Transport (February 2005) General leaflet on religious viewpoints, Retrieved from: http://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/how_to_bec ome_a_donor/religious_perspectives/index.asp [Accessed at 24 March 2014] Peers, R. (16 November 2012) Pro/Con Selling Organs, Retrieved from: http://prezi.com/ujelpfbdbe5u/procon-selling-organs/ [Accessed at 2 March 2014] Scheve, T. (7 May 2008) How Organ Donation Works, Retrieved from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern-treatments/organ-donation.htm [Accessed at 28 March 2014]
Friday, September 27, 2019
Islam is Not the Enemy of America - Research Paper Example America became the envy of other nations as the country was populated by people who knew how to get along with one another, regardless of race, nationality, religion, gender, or beliefs in life. However, all of that changed with the attacks on the Word Trade Center Twin Towers and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. The perpetrators of the crime were proven to be Muslim men who were in the United States on student visas. It was this terrorist attack from within our shores that totally reshaped the way that America came to view immigrants to the country. It most specially changed the image of the Muslims in America. The once tolerant nation now became a nation that despised all things Muslim, for it was the Muslims who shed the blood of Americans and attacked the peaceful nation on its very own soil using their own airplanes against them. It was this mindset that led to the new American belief that Islam, which is the religion practiced by Muslims should be tagged as the enemy of Amer ica. That belief has shaped the beliefs of a new generation of Americans and it has caused divisiveness within the American society at large. It is my belief however, that Islam is not the enemy of America. Rather, the Muslims and the followers of Islam have been lumped together with those of radical Islamic beliefs that have nothing to do with the true meaning of Islam and the Muslim way of life. By writing this paper, I hope to present the reasons as to why Muslims and Islam are not enemies of America. I will be presenting factual evidence based upon authoritative journals, newspaper reports, and quotes from interviews with people who are quite familiar with the aforementioned topic. In the end, I hope to have presented a solid explanation regarding why Americans have a misconception about Muslims and Islam in general. In order to understand more about what Islam truly is about, we first need to know who the Muslims are. Muslims are the people who follow the Islamic faith. Theirs is a religion that spans the globe from the Southern Philippines, the Middle East, Indonesia, and Africa. While a small fraction of the religious practitioners also reside in the Soviet Union, China, North and South America, and finally, Europe. (Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding Islam and the MuslimsÃ¢â¬ ). Muslims, just like all other religions believe that there is one unique God under whose authority Man exists. They are the people who believe that Mohammed is the sole prophet of God and that no other God other than the Muslim God exists. By definition, Islam, the religion has been defined by experts as simply meaning Ã¢â¬Å"submissionÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, in religious terms, Ã¢â¬Å"IslamÃ¢â¬ is said to mean Ã¢â¬Å"... complete submission to the will of GodÃ¢â¬ . The very definition of Islam has nothing to do with violence or terrorism. However, there are some factions
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Intangible Assets, IAS 38 - Essay Example Another criterion of identifying these assets is from contractual or other legal rights. Examples of these intangible assets would include patents, customer lists, copyrights and computer software. Some of these can be included in the financial statements of a given firm. The sale of computer software would indeed be included in a financial statement. Computer software is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence converted into programs acceptable to the computer platform. Intelligence is an asset that one would not see, touch or physically measure yet the products developed from the same are of great value (Alexander, Britton, & Jorissen, 2010). Looking at these intangible assets in this perspective, that they can be converted onto tangible assets then one would rightly argue that they should be included in the financial statements of the company. Internally generated brands are those products that are unique to a given firm only. The uniqueness comes into play owing to the fact that they are generated right within the company. They are not bought from outside then sold from the firm but are those generated from within the company (ibid). They are born of the intangible assets within the firm. Software manufacturing companies are most commonly known for this. Examples of these are Avast, Kaspersky, as well as Avira. These are software manufactured by different companies thus the difference in uniqueness. Lots of debates have been put forward criticizing the inclusion of these internally generated brands into the financial statements. Whichever way one decides to look at it, their inclusion would have advantages and disadvantages which are discussed in the following discourse. The main advantage lies on the fact that not a lot of monetary resources would be used in their creation. The normal monthly salary of the employee is all it takes to make an employee working in a given firm employ the best of his/her intelligence to the firm. The resulting products from an
Strategic Human Resource Management - Essay Example Today most of the Organisations are found to be engaged in preparation to ensure their existence. As it was seen in the case of Air National which got privatized by the government of Britain as a result of which the company faced all of the sudden increase in the competitive forces due to other private companies in the airline industry. The company also lost the political strengths and influences which acted as substantial support to Air National (Bratton & Gold, 2001). During this adverse business condition the organization initially worked for its survival but parallel to that it also considered its growth which is achieved through the strategic approaches. To meet the technological challenges raised by the business environment Organisations could adopt approaches of SHRM under which they can develop their workforce by providing substantial training and skill development support (Delbridge, Gratton, & Johnson, 2006).As strategic HRM interventions, organizations should design their recruitment policy in a way that best suits crisis control. Organisations should try and find skilled and competent candidates for critical positions (Anonymous-c, n.d.) so that additional cost of training and development can be saved. The management should also ensure that the employee base it is left with post-downsizing consist of the most competent, efficient and talented employees. As these employees are rich with experience, targeted programs will be sufficient for their need-based training and development.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Gun Control - Research Paper Example te this realization, the liberals have continued to push for the gun control as it increases the voterÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency on the government to offer them protection. The political effect has impacted the gun control in that it has shifted the voters leftward leaving the main supporters of the gun control to be the leftists politicians and liberal media (Kleinig & Lafolletee, 17). The Gun control is now believed to be a limitation or a denial by the government through the congress of the right of the citizens to armed self defense as stated by the Second Amendment of the United States of America Constitution (Kleinig & Lafolletee, 18). The congress have come out strongly using the discredited yet superficially appealing that the less the lawful-owned guns in the hands of the citizens, the fewer the crime cases even though guns have been considered as the main weapons of defense in America. The justification of their argument is that gun control laws result in enormous hardships. A good example is that of May 2012 when a gun control law led to an African American woman to be sentenced to prison for 20 years for just firing warning shots to her husband (Kleinig 280). This case resulted to an outburst of outrage around Florida as most people were against this sentence terming it as being unconscionable. The state has considered coming up with laws that ensure li ability in gun manufacturing and cover issues on shooting sports and personal protection. The laws also ensured that the licensed guns remained within the boundaries of the state exempt from the regulations of the federal that include licensing, background checks and registration. Most of the congresses believe that the gun control has potentially resulted to an increase in crime cases related to the use of guns through restricting its primary deterrent which is self defense. Statistics have it that law-abiding citizens in United States who use their guns outnumber the criminals who use guns and the ratio has
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Health Science and Medicine - Essay Example From this discussion it is clear thatÃ there are various features present in the patient engagement applications available. For one, all these patient engagement applications offer medical tips and advice. This information helps the patients learn more about various diseases. The advice given on these applications helps the patients manage how to manage particular diseases. The other feature is that these application offer platform for the patients to give their feedback to the hospital or ask any questions.This study highlights thatÃ patient education is one of the most important factors when it comes to ensuring that their health is made a priority. Patients who have been empowered with knowledge will be able to spot any problems in their health, signs and symptoms of various ailments. The patients are going to be more responsible in matters concerning their health and when the symptoms persist, they will understand when it is a must to see a doctor. It is for this reason that there are Patient Engagement programs set up by hospitals so that the patients can learn more. Through patients learning more about different ailments, they will also make it easier for the doctor handling them. They have an interactive platform to ask any questions and give feedback to the hospitals about their services and areas that may need improvement on.Ã One of the patient engagement programs is the Kaiser PermanenteÃ¢â¬â¢s HealthConnect program.Ã This program used a registry and support program that offers electronic care.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Persuasive Memo - Assignment Example , it is the opinion of our legal department that we are not going to be in violation of any laws should be decide to with-hold healthcare coverage of part-time employees. Although our responsible research teams have assured us that we are not facing any legal backlash by withholding ACA coverage to our variable-hour employees (part-timers), it would still be best for us as a corporation to offer our variable hour employees access to a medical plan coverage which they may choose to accept or waive depending upon their personal ability to pay for the coverage. We are under no legal obligation to shoulder their health care coverage. However, other companies such as Trader Joes have offered similar plans to their employees with successful results as more part-time employees opt to shop for insurance coverage on their own based upon their own ability to pay. (University of Missouri System, Ã¢â¬Å"The Affordable Care ActÃ¢â¬ ) An in-house survey of our variable-hour workers shows that they often have other jobs aside from the one that they currently hold with us. Their other jobs have also offered them the opportunity to either partake of company insurance coverage or procure their own health insurance coverage. It appears that they have mostly made their own arrangements for their individual insurance coverages. It is understood that our company values the contribution of our variable-hour workers to our companys growth and reliable income performance. Therefore, it would be in our best interests to still find a method by which we can care for our variable-hour employees health without giving them to same insurance coverage as our regular employees. We have come up with a list of possible recommendations for your approval. We can offer one or both of the above recommendations to our variable - time employees as an incentive for them to stay healthy and lessen their sick days. Kindly let me know as soon as you have decided upon a course of action based upon the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Porfirio DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership tactics Essay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz was able to manipulate other politicians as well as his surrounding leaders. He created great relationships with regional leaders, reminding them that the growth of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s economy would also create economic growth for them.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz created peace among the Catholic Church supporters, and opponents. Diaz enforced new laws, reforming church privileges.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ In order to boost the economy, Diaz looked to foreign investment. He gave tax breaks for international investors, used foreign capital to pay for infrastructure, and always encouraged trade with other countries (i. e Britain, United States, Germany, etc.).  Ã¢â¬ ¢ To maintain political power and approval, Diaz regularly jailed those who spoke out against him or his policies, resulting in many editors and writers being imprisoned and opposing leaders Ã¢â¬Å"disappearingÃ¢â¬ .  Porfirio DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidential Terms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz served as president first in 1876, though the public realized his love of power, and elected a new president, Gonzalez, after DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s first term. After a term of Gonzalez, Diaz then reclaimed presidency, and stayed in power from 1884 to 1910, a grand total of 30 years.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diaz eventually lost power in 1911, after several public uproars and criticismÃ¢â¬â¢s about Diaz came forth, and the Maderistas took up arms against him. Soon, a revolution at the battle of Casas Grandes, took place, defeating Porfirio Diaz.  Juan Manuel de Rosas accomplishments Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rosas walked into a politically unstable, Argentina. To fix this, Rosas believed in a greater amount of power for the governor. Through doing so, Rosas became a tyrant like leader, similar to Diaz.  Ã¢â¬ ¢ During his reign, Rosas increased exported beef and hides, ended the ongoing civil wars, obtained much more land, and declined foreign debts.  Leadership Style of Rosas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rosas was extremely oppressive, not always being sympathetic or thoughtful, often showing no mercy to those whom he though betrayed him.  Analysis The Caudillos Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz are two extremely powerful men in Latin American history, each changing different things about their country in different ways. However, one thing is consistent when analyzing both; they were masters of political power and maintained it better than most leaders. The rise and preservation of power does not come from simple charisma or character. Each leader devised strong strategies and processes, ensuring them the necessary support to rule a country for such an amount of time. After first being elected president in 1876, then losing his position to Gonzales, Diaz then reclaimed the presidency from 1184 to 1910, meaning he remained in power for a total of 30 years.  Diaz did this by manipulating others around him, including other authorities as well as the public. Those who did not agree with Diaz or spoke out were punished. Many were imprisoned or found disappearing. Aside from the public, Diaz also took care of threatening opposing authorities by creating great relationships with regional leaders. These relations, military power, and strive for strength created the everlasting regime of Porfirio Diaz. Like Diaz, Juan Manuel de Rosas grew to be extremely powerful during his country of ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s, time of need. Again, being similar with Diaz, Rosas, while powerful, was also oppressive, as many Caudillos of the time soon became. Through a letter written by a citizen to Juan Manuel de Rosas, in which the man pleads for his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s safety, Rosas is unmoved by the article and executes the daughter. This is a prime example of the leader ship style of Rosa. Though, it does raise the question that if he was so oppressive and powerful, why was he in office for so long? When Rosas arrived in Argentina, political chaos was obvious. In order to ensure stability, Rosas implemented many changes in the government, including giving more power to the governor, which in turn, saved Rosas job for the future, allowing him to become a tyrant like leader. Both of these Caudillos illustrate humanÃ¢â¬â¢s crave for power, and the manipulation, deception, and devilish processes that can be used to maintain this power. We can see both of these men as great leaders, as they thoroughly accomplished what they decided was best. We can also see them as great lessons, teaching us of the dangers of leadership and the risks it often involves. Conclusion The view of past and present Caudillos will consistently change with the person the view is from. However, one thing is clear. Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz were two Caudillos of political excellence, maintaining a long and influential regime. This was accomplished by both, through their personal triumphs over the previous government of their nation as well as a triumph over threatening authorities around and within the nation, such as Diaz regularly jailing those who spoke out against him or his policies. Rosas and Diaz both knew what they wanted and had valid processes in accomplishing this; though the moral values of their actions are up to discussion. This situation is common throughout history, including skilled leaders such as Hitler, Stalin, and Castro. Juan Manuel de Rosas and Porfirio Diaz display patterns of the past and expectations of the future.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Contributions of Biotechnology to Agriculture Introduction The Food and Agriculture Organization some 20 years ago released a paper stating that the amount of food produced worldwide will not be able to provide the constant nutritional needs for the world population by this year (2010) as a staggering 25% increase in world population was projected, though this estimation has not materialised, it has generated a lot of concerns as there has been a 4-fold population increase in the last century (1918 2009) which has led to the applications of biotechnology to agriculture or in other words the Agrobiotechnology to enhance maximum food production in an economic way. The need for the application of biotechnology to crops was also necessitated as a result of the massive crop loss due to insect pests as at that time was treated with pesticides which are expensive and thus there was a need to sustain the productivity yields of crops which was not given much of a chance as world population was on the rise. Biotechnology was able to provide prospects of producing novel, developed, safer and inexpensive crops in agricultural practices. (Brown, 1992) Agriculture is defined simply as the activities involved in the production of food crops and rearing of livestock animals, while biotechnology was defined jointly by FAO and WHO (1996) as the integration of natural sciences and engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services. Therefore Agrobiotechnology techniques according to Huttner et al, (1995) are implemented to reduce cost of production of crops and increasing food productivity by; increasing food quality and food processing traits, adequate disease or pest resistance, improving environmental stress tolerance, and the control of weeds which has led to the development of (genetically modified) GM crops in some parts of the world. Plant breeding techniques with the use of molecular markers such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSRP, CAPS and SSCP were improved for plants genome mapping as well as to determine plants phenotypes and select desirable traits for the proper modification of crops depending on the gene of interest that is to be incorporated into several populations of plants or crops generated by crosses. (Mohan et al, 1996) Several biotechnology approaches have also been applied in livestock farming basically because there is a general belief that the biotechnological steps to humans are just one step ahead of those applied to animals which involves the modification of animals to observe desirable traits. (Becker and Cowan, 2009) According to Fernandez-Cornejo (2008), the fundamental contributions of the application of biotechnology to agriculture depends on the acknowledgement of its prospective possible benefits and risks, however, this essay will focus on the potential contributions of biotechnology to agriculture (plants and animals) taking into account the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the technology Plant (Crop) Biotechnology Plant biotechnology developments was based on the cell theory as described by Vasil (2007) and has witnessed remarkable expansion in the last 10 years which has focused majorly on making crop production efficient and producing crops with desired traits. Plants and crops need to overcome some Biotic and Abiotic stresses to increase their productivity which led to the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops about 20 years ago which have been commercialized over the past 10 years either with single traitor multiple traits GM crops as the name implies that genes of a crop are taken and transferred to another crop or already present genes are manipulated with the main purpose of changing the features of the crop in question which may be either the way the crop develops or matures. Addressed in the next paragraph are traits that have been transferred to biotechnology or GM crops to increase their yield. Insect/pest resistance Ferry et al (2005) estimated that 10 20% of major crops are lost to insects or pests and crops are genetically modified to be poisonous and harmful to pests that attack the crops, an example is the application of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) genes to grow cotton (in China and South Africa) and corn thereby reducing pesticide use, increasing profits, yields and health benefits to farmers who apply pesticides without protective clothes. (Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2004) Disease resistance Described in details by Raybould and Gray (1993), fungal, bacterial and viral infestations to crops and plants have been suppressed by genetically modifying plants to be disease resistant for example the ongoing research to reduce the viral and fungal infections to sweet potatoes and bananas respectively. Abiotic stress resistance Motavalli et al (2004) discussed the ongoing extensive research to modify crops to be able to survive in unfavourable environmental conditions such as drought, heat, cold, frost, extreme soil conditions and significantly increase food security for example the use of trehalose genes to grow rice in India to protect it from dehydration. Herbicide tolerance This trait enables a wide range of weeds to be controlled by modifying crops to be resistant to the effects of weed thereby lowering costs of herbicides, reducing tillage and effective weed control measures as discussed in Sharma et al (2002) in the growth of soybeans in Argentina. Improved nutritional value Plant biotechnologies has enabled crops to be modified to contain supplemental nutrients inadequate in diets for example the enhancement of Ã ²-carotene in rice to increase vitamin A to prevent blindness which is as a result of vitamin A deficiency. Biopharmaceuticals Biotechnology applications in plants has been used to produce vaccines and medicines according to Sharma et al (2002) which has enabled production and easy distribution of cheap vaccines as in the modification of potatoes to produce bacterial vaccines for E.coli. GM crops have been widely accepted worldwide (25 countries currently) both in industrial and developing countries as shown in figure 1 mainly because of their advantages which are either economical or environmental. Apart from the fact that plant or crop biotechnology has improved the productivity and yield of crops, other economic benefits in relation to the features of GM crops are further discussed; As described by Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2004), the growth of a large variety of crops by farmers have been enhanced as there a good resistance to biotic (insects, pests or diseases) and abiotic (drought, frost, heat) conditions. With the resistance of GM crops to insects and pests, the use of pesticides is greatly reduced which in turn reduces the costs of growing these crops. Farmers are able to generate more income owing to the reduction of the cost of farming and generation of higher yields which consequently reduce the prices of crops thus alleviating poverty and starvation levels in the economy. GM crops have an improved nutrition levels thus sicknesses and illnesses are consequently averted with a better diet even in underdeveloped countries. Since GM crops can remain fresher over a long period of time for example in tomatoes, the shelf life can be increased in the market. The ability of GMO crops to withstand abiotic conditions such as drought has increased food security while the cheaper production of biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines and other medicines in GM plants has led to a great ease of distribution and manufacture of vaccines thus improving healthcare systems. Environmental benefits of GM crops as discussed by Gatehouse et al (1992); Wieczorek (2003) and Gatehouse (2005), includes the less use or no use of pesticides and insecticides which may be contaminants in the environment (land or water) and could accumulate as residues on foods thus more environmental friendly pesticides can be used while in most cases there is no need to use pesticides. Natural resources sustainability is also improved as there is less use of energy or chemicals (pesticides) while natural habitats are conserved for more efficient applications. GM crops have reduced the pressure on vegetation and biodiversity is maintained while there is a less risk of desertification and soil erosion since GM crops can be grown anywhere irrespective of abiotic conditions. According to the advantages of biotechnology described in figure 2 above, these benefits can only be achieved if the risks and concerns which constitute the disadvantages are investigated, realised and averted. (Mannion, 1995). The potential risks of biotechnology applications to crops and plants can either be health related, environmental or social as further discussed. Wieczorek, (2003) discusses the potential risk of introducing toxins and allergens into GM crops while genetic modification technology is underway is of great concern as there is a potential risk of allergens and toxins being transferred into improved crops while also emphasizing the concerns raised about the use of molecular markers during gene transfer as there is a potential risk of diseases being resistant to clinical antibiotic treatments as a result of transfer of resistance encoding genes which may contain novel bacterial strains. Of great concern as discussed by Hobbs and Plunkett, 1999 is the fact that the long term health effects of the consumption of GM crops over a long time is unknown. Of environmental concerns is the potential risk of GM crops hybridizing with related weeds which may result in superweeds that are more complicated to manage while genetic modification of plants could pose a risk of unintentional gene transfer to non GM crops from GM crops thus the former become wild plants creating ecological instabilities as discussed by Soregaroli and Wesseler, (2003). Wieczorek, (2003) suggests that the release of GM crops into the environment may pose unpredicted and adverse effects as it was emphasized by the fatal actions of Bt corn on the larvae of Monarch butterfly, though the possibility of this happening is very doubtful. Due to the fact that insect pests may get resistant to crop-fortification traits of GM crops, a swift resistance can build up among pest populations as it was feared with Bt crops while biological diversity in nature stand a great risk of being adversely affected as there may be an increase on the reliance of GM crops which could intensif y failure of non-GM crops and put at risk food security. A social concern as discussed by Persley and Siedow, (199) raises the arguments of GM crops being labelled as practiced in the U.S.A where Gm crops carry a label showing a difference in while another concern is the inadequate access to seeds of GM crops or food plants that have been patented as these seeds cannot be saved for replanting. GM crops/food plants have been referred to as unnatural by critics as they are modified by humans and not found in nature as other crops created by God thus causing uproar of religious and ethical concerns as discussed in Knight (2008) while it is feared that these GM plants could someday turn into weeds, adversely affect the natural ecosystem due to direct and indirect impacts on non-targeted plants/crops as described by Azadi and Ho, (2009). Animal Biotechnology Animal biotechnology was described by Cowan and Becker, (2006) as series of techniques by which living beings are genetically modified to benefit humans and animals by exploiting and introducing desirable trait which is as a result of the genetic code being discovered in the early 1950s with technologies including embryo transfer, transgenics, in-vitro fertilization, sexing embryo, cloning and gene knockout but with transgenics being the most commercialized while cloning being the technique surrounded with much controversy. Animal biotechnologies have not received much attention as attributed to plant/crop biotechnology as there is so much controversy surrounding its applications as there is a general concern that these applications could one day be applied to humans since its just a step ahead of the applications to livestock to observe desired traits. Embryo transfer, In-vitro fertilization, sexing embryo and even cloning can be classified as reproducing technologies that have several advantages as described by Gordon, 2004 which includes; the improvement of the reproducing capacities of livestock, the reduction of the level of infertility in animals, enablement of old livestock to donate ovules if they cant maintain pregnancies, the observation of specific sex (male or female) as desired traits while the embryos in all these techniques can also be stored in an embryo bank and can be easily retrieved when required. Gene knockout/targeting techniques has a major advantage of increasing the knowledge of stem cells and similar genes that may be present in humans and livestock and can be use to study diseases and ailments as discussed by Serhan and Ward, (1999). Cloning of animals is also advantageous; as it provides farmers with a range of better performing animals in a generation, is used to improve the population of livestock or endangered animals while inexpensive and many biologically engineered drugs can be modified by using genes that can encode proteins from human as discussed by Van Niekerk, (2005). Application of transgenics which is performed either by microinjection or homologous recombination however is the most advantageous and commercialized animal biotechnology with several examples as shown in table 1, below. As numerous as the advantages and contributions of animal biotechnology are, there are still health, environmental and social concerns that want to constitute as disadvantages to the biotechnology applications for instance the safety of food from GM animals could pose a threat to human health as unpredicted and unintended changes may arise in their composition while environmental issues are based on the break out of gene flow into natural populations as feared especially in superfish as escape into habitats will disrupt natural ecosystems and may cause the introduction of undiscovered genes into the environment. Cowan and Becker (2006). Social acceptance concerns has been a major disadvantage of animal biotechnologies as discussed by Becker and Cowan (2009) which arise from labelling, welfare of animals, genetic biodiversity and trade issues have limited the commercialization of animal biotechnologies. Purpose/ Advantage Animal Models Faster Growth/ Leaner meat Cattle, pig, rabbits, sheep Altered milk composition (higher protein) Cattle Biosteel production in milk Goat Reduced phosphorous in swine feaces (Enviropig) Pig Increased wool production Sheep Disease resistance Pig, sheep, rabbit Xenotransplantation (animal organs for humans) Pig Aquaculture (Growth Hormones of Superfish) Salmon Production of human protein in milk Sheep Production of pharmaceuticals and therapeutics Sheep, cattle Table 1: Applications of Transgenics in Farm Animals. Modified from original source; Cowan and Becker (2006)
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Rapid Change Of Information Technology With the rapid change of information technology in twentieth century, internet has become a catalyst for the way people in the world to communicate and sharing or access information speedily. Many businesses also adopted the internet as a means of trading or improving internal processes and more importantly, engage and build relationships with customers. In this paper, the author will analyst the competitive environment and resources for one of the market leading electrical appliances chain stores in Malaysia and propose a information systems strategy plans which suits the company best. 1.2 Companys profile SenHeng Electric (KL) Sdn. Bhd is one of the well known household electrical retailers among few names in the annals of Malaysian retailing business. Founded in 1989 by Lim brother, K.H., K.C., and K.Y., the company has started its business from a tiny consumer electronics half shop set up with stocks worth less than RM30,000.00 to one the largest electrical chain store in Malaysia. Currently, SenHeng has more than 100 stores spread throughout nationwide with 10 distribution centre located in Selangor, Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak. This has assured its customers to enjoy consistent and punctual delivery of all purchased items. 1.3 PESTEL Political Economic Transformation Programme The Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) embraced by Malaysia government in year 2010 is a comprehensive effort to transform Malaysia into a high-income nation by year 2020. It targeted to lift Malaysias gross national income (GNI) per capita from USD6,700.00 or RM23,700 in 2009 to more than USD15,000 or RM48,000 in year 2020. Specific attention has been paid to raise the incomes of the bottom 40 percent of households, with a target of increasing the monthly mean income of this group from RM1,440 in 2009 to RM2,300 in 2015. The prospect of Malaysian retail industries like SenHeng Electric is expected to be positive as consumer spending power will eventually boost by the plan. According to Ecmlibra investment research, total retail sales are forecast to increase by 34 percent to RM123.5bn in 2014 from RM92.3bn in 2010. (http://www.ecmmoney.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2010/09/Strategy_100922_A-challenging-road-ahead.pdf) Economic performance Retailer profits have a correlation with the country overall economic performance. After the global economy downturn in 2009, the Malaysian economy experienced a strong resumption of growth in 2010. The growth was driven by robust domestic demand, with strong expansion in private sector activity. For the year as a whole, the overall aggregate domestic demand expanded strongly by 6.3 percent from -0.5 percent in 2009. It was reflected in the strong performance of major consumption indicators such as passenger car sales, retail sales and imports of consumption goods. (http://www.bnm.gov.my/view.php?dbIndex=0website_id=1id=819). According to Bank Negara Malaysia annual report 2010, the Malaysian economy is projected to grow by 5 percent to 6 percent this year. However, inflation hikes which caused by rising prices of food and energy in Malaysia continuous to worry the nation and will likely to affect consumer spending behaviors and trim down purchasing power in household electrical appl iances. Social Consumer Buying Behavior The growing population in Malaysia and steady rise in household disposable income in recent year has permitted them to spend more on luxury goods outpaced on basic items like food. High profile international retailers and the global mass media have also played a hand in shaping consumer buying behavior to chase after high end electrical appliances. This is predominantly true for young and large working-age populations often looking up for better lifestyle are more willing to spend more on high tech home appliances which can save their time from doing home work. Greater access to credit allowed individuals to fund discretionary spending and sometimes squander more than what they have earned. According to Bank Negara Malaysia annual report 2010, in the period between 2000 and 2009, household debt grew at an annual rate of 13.5 percent. (http://www.bnm.gov.my/index.php?ch=109pg=333ac=81yr=2010) Technology Technological innovations encouraged consumer spending in areas like internet services, mobile communication equipment, cable television services and audio visual equipments. The advent of mobile technology is impacting the way retail businesses operate today compared to a decade ago. Urban consumers who armed with smart phones are getting smarter every day. They are able to access information on products, prices and stores anywhere at any time. They can compare price for the same product offered by different retailer shop easily. Retail businesses are able to reach out to their customers instantaneously with tailored information and product offers via mobile broadcasting. 1.3.5 Environmental Global Warming Global warming and climate change continues to be threatening humanity today. The impact of global warming is already being seen around the world. With the world as a whole is pumping out more and more carbon dioxide (CO2) every year, the IPCC has concluded that global temperatures will likely to rise by 1.2 to 6.5 degrees C by end of the century. The increase individual awareness of global warming issue, consumer tend to favor for home appliances which are more eco-friendly, energy saving and with minimal impact on the current environment. (http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/9/29/nation/19028575sec=nation) Legal New Credit Card Rules Bank Negara Malaysia has recently announced new measures on credit card application by rising minimum annual income requirements for credit card eligibility from RM18,000 per annum to RM24,000 per annum. Cardholders can only hold credit cards from a maximum of two issuers. For existing cardholders whose outstanding balance which exceeds the maximum credit limit, a grace period of two years given to them to meet the new requirement. The new guidelines are to address concerns over rising household debt in the recent year. (http://www.theasianbanker.com/press-releases/6368). However, with the limited access to credit, the move will trim down the purchasing power of the lower income group and affect the buyer shopping behaviors which ultimately affect retailers business. 1.4 Strength of the Company 1.4.1 Supply Chain Management SenHeng Electric has installed a comprehensive supply chain management system into the day to day operations of its business. This system allows the company to gauge and manage product flow seamlessly. Furthermore, it allows the company to continuously maintain optimum stock of goods within all their outlets. This will ultimately reduces excessive cost on overstocking and eliminate low supply upon consumers demand is rise. The system was designed in the way of centralized order that liked online directly to its suppliers. 1.4.2 Branding Given the long history of the company in household electrical appliances business, SenHeng electrical is a well known branding in Malaysia. The company continues to execute its brand building strategies by creating more streamlined look and feel for all its branches. This new identity spans across the board, its marketing brochures, posters as well as uniform for its employees. With the companys trademark green, these stores are brighter that the usual electrical store. This exercise has given SenHeng electrical a friendlier image and enabled the company to provide more professional service to its customers. Loyalty Card The company has implemented PlusOne loyalty card, a unique plan to reward its customers. The card members of PlusOne are allowed to enjoy extra thirteen months of product warranty as well as thirty percent off on all service or repairing labor costs. In additional to that, those products that purchased by card members will be delivered to their doorstep with no charge. Every purchased item is rewarded with specific points to its member card and these points will be used to redeem for other goods. Fixed price policy and flexible payment scheme To standardize the service standard and eliminate poor experiences by customer in the companys outlet throughout the nation, the company has implemented a fixed price policy and the product offered by its outlets carried the same price. The company has partnership with more than ten major banks for flexible payment methods where customers are allowed to make payment via cash or credit and opt for their preferred installment plan with interest free. Varieties of products To provide conveniences for its consumers and enhancing their shopping experience, the company has offered varieties of electrical products for different brands. It covers home appliances, digital imaging, computer, audio video, office automation and those electrical appliances from bedroom to kitchen. Product testing and demo facilities are provided to its consumers to learn on the products prior to purchase. 2.0 Weaknesses of the Company Consumer is the kind in todays market. In order to retain existing customer and convert them into loyal customer, the company needs to listen and understand their consumer needs. Despite SenHengs effort in providing training to improve the service standard of its employees, however, it is still difficult to manage the service quality standard for all its outlets due to the large number of the outlets spread throughout the nation. Customers feedback is therefore important to the company to gauge the service standard of respective outlet and put in appropriate preventive measure which SenHeng needs to focus on it. Opportunity E-Commerce According to euromoney latest statistic, the internet users in Malaysia have continues to grow from 14 million in 2007 to 17 million in 2011. E-commerce served one of the most popular tools for many organizations to tackle the fierce competition in the market. It will untapped the potential business market segment and increase the sales of their products in a cost effective manners. With the emerge popularity of smart phones, M-commerce becomes another potential channel for business to promote their products or promotion effectively. 2.0 Porter five forces 2.1 Threat of new entrants Currently there are large numbers of small or medium size companies in Malaysian electrical retailing market. Not to include large departmental stores like Giant or Tesco. Thus, the profit margin is rather tiny due to the stiff competition in the market. With the maturity level for electrical retailing business, its very unlikely that new entrants would step in without a new business models. However, in view of the rising internet penetration, online shopping may be the novel trend in Malaysia. With the increase trend for consumer to shop online, online retailer may be one of the threats which will potentially slide off the market share of SenHeng. (http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/4/11/business/3620542sec=business) 2.2 Threat supplier bargaining power As there are large numbers of suppliers in the electrical appliances market, thus the bargaining power of supplier is minimal. Furthermore, SenHeng Eletric has established a long history of relationship with its various suppliers. With its well established branding in Malaysian household home appliances and large market share in this retail business segment, supplier would find it difficulty to get the similar buyers like SenHeng Electric to cross selling their products. 2.3 Threat buyer bargaining power In electrical retailing business, prices are sensitive to consumer. The consumer is always looks for the better price for electrical products. As the competition in this industry is stiff, small retailers often offered lower price to sell out the goods during bad season. The selling prices sometime dont even sufficient to cover their delivery cost. Furthermore, easy access to information through internet allows consumer to compare price and products against the companys competitors. Although SenHeng Electric has established a fixed price policy to its outlets to eliminate price bargaining. However, to offer a fair price to its consumer still deems to be the main concern to stay competitive. The company has since 2002 implemented a centralized order management system to manage its stock inventory level which helps the company to reduce its inventory cost. 2.4 Threats of substitutes As most of the competitors in this industry are selling finished products with similar brands of household electrical appliances in the market, thus at a glance, selling price becomes the key consideration factor for consumer to decide where they spend. However, some consumers do take consideration of other aspect like after sales service, product testing, repair service and etc. 2.5 Rivalry among competitor Although SenHeng Electric is one of the largest electrical chain stores in Malaysia, the company still facing stiff competition from its competitor HLK (Chain-Store) Sdn Bhd whom continues to slide the market share of SenHeng Electric. To avoid cutthroat pricing competition and sustain its market present, service differentiation is one of the key areas for the company work on. 3.0 Strategy implication Determined market segmentation is vitally important in every business. Through identify who the actual and potential customers are, the company would able to determine how to position themselves into that specific market segment. Michael Porter has pointed out that combining a market segmentation strategy with a product differentiation strategy is an effective way of matching the firms product strategy (supply side) to the characteristic of the target market segments (demand side). Below table illustrated Porters generic strategies which differentiated into three dimensions (level of differentiation, relative product cost, and scope of target market). The traditional electrical retailing business like Senheng electric and other similar competitors are usually focus on middle income group consumer with age range from 30 to 50 years old. The approach has limit the expansion of the company as there are many of its competitors out there in the market are chasing the same group of consumers. To stay competitive, SenHeng Electric is in need to differentiate themselves from its competitors by improving its services and enhancing customers experiences towards its outlet. Understand its consumers by collecting feedback from them would in turn help the company to look into those areas where they need further improvement. With the economic growth in last two decades and Malaysian government effort in building higher education infrastructure in the country, there are increasing number of young working adults whose earned higher salary income in recent year. Moreover, rising demand in home electrical appliances is foreseeable with the My First Home Scheme launched by Malaysia Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak recently which has enabled young adults to buy houses costing between one hundred thousand ringgit and 220,000 ringgit with a repayment period of up to thirty years. This is a potential lucrative market segment which SenHeng should untapped into it. As online shopping is becoming popular in Malaysia, E-commerce is an alternate channel for the company to reach out consumer in different market segment. E-commerce eliminates the traditional purchase approach which is time consuming and labor intensive. It helps the company to reduce cost of purchasing transactions and speed delivery. Customers can reach a company via internet for twenty four hours which increase the business competitiveness. This will helps the company to relieve their sales person to take up other important task. Furthermore, it enables the company to collect consumer buying behavior or pattern as all sales orders for individual buyers are traceable. The company can use the data to strategize the marketing or promotion approach accurately. 4.0 Plan/Recommendations In view of the above, the author proposes to enhance the current webpage of SenHeng Electric by engaging its vendor Webz Design and Solution Sdn Bhd. 4.1 Business proposal plan and objectives Below consists of the webpage enhancement needs for the company: To setup a user friendly e-commerce website which inducing internet users to purchase the companys products and services online. To utilize the webpage for marketing and promotion activities run by the company. To increase the professional looks of the company and brand awareness to its potential consumers in the market. To enable online order status checking for the company and its consumer. To conduct consumer survey and served as a channel for consumer to escalate feedback/complaint for its products and services. Objectives: To provide alternate channel where consumers are allowed to place their order anywhere anytime. Customers can trace their order online easily without calling the outlets for assistance. To untapped young adults market where online shopping becoming a common trend in the market. To improve its services through collecting complaint/feedback from its clients. To increase its sales volume by 20 percent from second years onwards after the webpage enhancement. To achieve economic scales of assigning other tasks to its sales people. 4.4 Projected Incremental in Sales Volume 4.5 Business Assumption 4.5.1 Sales volume Assumption make that progressive incremental in sales order which will generate yearly gross revenue of RM100,000.00 starting from the second consecutive year onwards after e-commerce website launched. 4.5.2 Headcount Impact Sales department Assumption makes that no requirement for additional sales staff as customer will perform self online visit to evaluate the products nature and price offered. 5.0 Conclusion In conclusion, consumer buying trends and pattern will undergo significant changes over the next five to ten years. Shopping centers and the entire retail industry will be affected immensely by the increasing number of online shopper. With the broader accessibility of internet and high speed broadband implemented throughout Malaysian nation, embrace in e-commerce is certainly a right business strategy move for traditional retailer in Malaysia. In authors view, online retailing business is foresee to have positive growth continuously in the next fifteen years. Adopting service differentiation approach will eventually help the company to stay competitive and position themselves in better aspect to avoid price war situation. See appendix 1 (http://www.euromonitor.com/malaysia/country-factfile).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Dalai Lama's biography His Holiness the 14th the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, is the head of state and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. He was born Lhamo Dhondrub on 6 July 1935, in a small village called Taktser in northeastern Tibet. Born to a peasant family, His Holiness was recognized at the age of two, in accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the Buddha of Compassion. The Dalai Lamas are the manifestations of the Bodhisattva (Buddha) of Compassion, who chose to reincarnate to serve the people. Lhamo Dhondrub was, as Dalai Lama, renamed Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso - Holy Lord, Gentle Glory, Compassionate, Defender of the Faith, Ocean of Wisdom. Tibetans normally refer to His Holiness as Yeshe Norbu, the Wishfulfilling Gem or simply Kundun - The Presence. The enthronement ceremony took place on February 22, 1940 in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. Education in Tibet He began his education at the age of six and completed the Geshe Lharampa Degree (Doctorate of Buddhist Philosophy) when he was 25 in 1959. At 24, he took the preliminary examinations at each of the three monastic universities: Drepung, Sera and Ganden. The final examination was conducted in the Jokhang, Lhasa during the annual Monlam Festival of Prayer, held in the first month of every year Tibetan calendar. Leadership Responsibilities On November 17, 1950, His Holiness was called upon to assume full political power (head of the State and Government) after some 80,000 Peoples Liberation Army soldiers invaded Tibet. In 1954, he went to Beijing to talk peace with Mao Tse-tung and other Chinese leaders, including Chou En-lai and Deng Xiaoping. In 1956, while visiting India to attend the 2500th Buddha Jayanti Anniversary, he had a series of meetings with Prime Minister Nehru and Premier Chou about deteriorating conditions in Tibet. His efforts to bring about a peaceful solution to Sino-Tibetan conflict were thwarted by Bejing's ruthless policy in Eastern Tibet, which ignited a popular uprising and resistance. This resistance movement spread to other parts of the country. On 10 March 1959 the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, exploded with the largest demonstration in Tibetan history, calling on China to leave Tibet and reaffirming Tibet's ... ...his year. But I do not believe the demonstrations were in vain, because the spirit of freedom was rekindled among the Chinese people and China cannot escape the impact of this spirit of freedom sweeping in many parts of the world. The brave students and their supporters showed the Chinese leadership and the world the human face of that great nations." A Simple Buddhist monk His Holiness often says, "I am just a simple Buddhist monk - no more, nor less." His Holiness follows the life of Buddhist monk. Living in a small cottage in Dharamsala, he rises at 4 A.M. to meditate, pursues an ongoing schedule of administrative meetings, private audiences and religious teachings and ceremonies. He concludes each day with further prayer before retiring. In explaining his greatest sources of inspiration, he often cites a favorite verse, found in the writings of the renowned eighth century Buddhist saint Shantideva: For as long as space endures And for as long as living beings remain, Until then may I too abide To dispel the misery of the world. For as long as space endures And for as long as living beings remain, Until then may I too abide To dispel the misery of the world.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
On March 26, 1997, in what has become known as one of the most noteworthy mass suicides in history, thirty-nine men and women affiliated with the Heavens Gate cult took their own lives by ingesting a combination of Phenobarbitals mixed with applesauce and alcohol. Each was dressed all in black, their faces covered by a purple shroud. Those who wore glasses had them neatly folded next to their body, and all had identification papers for the authorities to find. The house was immaculate, tidier even than before the victims had moved in. It was as if, in preparing for their death, they were heeding the words of the prophet Isaiah: Ã¢â¬Å"Set thine house in order; for thou shalt die, and not live.Ã¢â¬ And while their abrupt end may seem rather strange, the way they lived is even more perplexing. The group came together in the mid 1970s under the charismatic preaching of Marshall Herff Applewhite, and his companion, Bonnie Lu Nettles, a former nurse. It enjoyed a short-lived burst of notoriety, during which time they referred to themselves as Bo and Peep, before the couple took it underground in 1976. After existing in deep seclusion in various Southwestern cities, the group surfaced again briefly in 1994, when members sought out recruits with a series of public lectures. In the group's documents, Applewhite and Nettles are described as representatives of an extraterrestrial plane called the Kingdom of Heaven, who have come to Earth Ã¢â¬Å"to offer the way leading to membershipÃ¢â¬ to those who could overcome their attachment to money, sex, and family life. Such total separation, the group preached, was necessary because Earth's human structures --governmental, economic and, especially, religious-- were under the control of demonic forces: Ã¢â¬Å"LuciferiansÃ¢â¬ and evi l Ã¢â¬Å"space aliens,Ã¢â¬ in the group's terms. In time, they began calling themselves Ã¢â¬Å"the Two,Ã¢â¬ a reference to the Ã¢â¬Å"two witnessesÃ¢â¬ of Christ foretold in the Bible's Book of Revelation. According to the Bible, the two witnesses are prophets who will be slain by a beast from the bottomless pit, then be resurrected and ascend to Heaven. They were both anti-establishment and intolerant, calling for total separation from society, simple living with shared resources, and adherence to a rigorous moral code. Applewhite also required members of the cult to dress, talk, and look the same. He made them all wear the same clothes, shaved ev... ...of the world turn violently against them, it added, the group would be ''mentally prepared'' for whatever came its way. They also allude to the example of the Jews at Masada who killed themselves rather than submit to Roman legions in A.D. 73. Furthermore, the group said its understanding of suicide was not at all conventional: ''The true meaning of 'suicide' is to turn against the Next Level when it is being offered.'' In the group's thinking, a spaceship, thought to be following in Hale-Bopp's wake, would be offering just such an opportunity. In conclusion, the entire aura of the HeavenÃ¢â¬â¢s Gate cult seems like something straight out of a late night TV movie. Like most millennialist groups, members held a firm belief in an oncoming apocalypse and that only an elect few would achieve salvation. The spread of their doctrine on the Internet brought about widespread concern over the power of the web. The argument has subsided, however, with the passage of time. I, for one, find the supposed link between the Internet and cult activities rather absurd. Extreme gullibility and brainwashing, I believe, would be the only ways a recruit would ever accept such an outlandish set of beliefs.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
When attempting to penetrate into the deeper themes of William BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle of poems Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of Innocence and ExperienceÃ¢â¬ it can be useful to recognize that the title of the poems, as well as the subsequent division into sections of innocence and experience carries ironic connotations. BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s intention in this cycle of poems, which he subtitled Ã¢â¬Å"Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human SoulÃ¢â¬ (Ostriker, 1977, p. 104) was to posit the relationship of individual freedom and self-determination as being at one with Divine Will. Therefore, the state of innocence which is referred to in the cycleÃ¢â¬â¢s title as well as in the division of poems itself is meant to suggest Ã¢â¬â not ignorance which leads to innocence Ã¢â¬â but the innocence which is gained (or reclaimed) by the experience of the Divine. In fact the first poem in the Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ cycle, Ã¢â¬Å"IntroductionÃ¢â¬ makes plainly manifest, BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic use of the titular connotations of innocence and experience. The poemÃ¢â¬â¢s second stanza reads: Pipe a song about a Lamb; So I piped with merry chear, Piper pipe that song againÃ¢â¬â So I piped, he wept to hear (Ostriker, 1977, p. 104) The subtlety of BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s theme here is so accomplished as to be almost invisible when one reads the lines without carefully probing each word for its connotations. Special attention must be given to each word-choice to extract from the sing-song pleasantness of the poem, the resounding and profound thematic ideas which lay beneath the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. The word Ã¢â¬Å"LambÃ¢â¬ for example is capitalized not only to emphasize the mythic and religious ideas which are an intimate part of Christian symbolism, but to inform the reader that Ã¢â¬Å"LambÃ¢â¬ is, indeed, the theme of the entire poem. The repeating of the word Ã¢â¬Å"pipedÃ¢â¬ is intended to show that the Divine voice is always trying to break through to humanity; the line Ã¢â¬Å"So I piped, he wept to hearÃ¢â¬ reveals that this song of Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ is, in fact, a song of experience: the knowledge that humanity is blind to, or in this case, deaf to, the Divine voice. While Blake emphasizes a state of idealism in his Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of Innocence and ExperienceÃ¢â¬ nowhere does he proffer the idea of passive acceptance of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s injustices or pain. In fact, passivity to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering is defined not in the poems of Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ but in a poem of Ã¢â¬Å"experienceÃ¢â¬ where BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict on the lack of empathy in the modern world could be made no more certain or clear. His poem Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ is a lament for precisely this idea of passive acceptance of world injustice and suffering: In ever cry of every man, In every Infants cry f fear, In very voice; in every ban, The mind-forgÃ¢â¬â¢d manacles I hear (Ostriker, 1977, 128). In these lines, the capitalized word Ã¢â¬Å"InfantsÃ¢â¬ denotes a connection to the Ã¢â¬Å"LambÃ¢â¬ of th other poems: in BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of Innocence and ExperienceÃ¢â¬ the lamb and the child are both symbols of the individuated self, and also of the Divine Will, which Blake, as mentioned, attempts to unify in his poetry. (Ostriker). The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"mind-forgÃ¢â¬â¢d manaclesÃ¢â¬ is important because it shows how a lack of empathy and compassion or even concern for the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s troubles is a function of ignorance, of a bad kind of Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ a worldly oblivion, which stands in sharp contrast to BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s idealized state of Divine innocence which is often frustrated by the materiality of ignorance of the world, but is nevertheless, an inheritance, according to Blake, which is due to every living individual on earth. The attainment of a state of ideal innocence in Blake denotes a state of self-awareness and self-identity which steps outside of the concerns of material wealth and social standing and relies purely upon the human heart as its gauge of success and its proximity to the Divine as a measure of its truth. Reference Ostriker, Alicia. 1977. Ã¢â¬Å"William Blake: The Complete PoemsÃ¢â¬ . Penguin Books, New York.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Life in America was written by Thomas Low Nichols in the 1830s, it was a text that captured the life and the situation of the country some years after the 1812 war. It is somewhat hard to establish the precise genre of the text, since the literary styles were somewhat different in those days.The specific term here is somewhat, since all the literary genres that exist today also existed then, but some writing styles that existed in mid 19th century do not really exist anymore and the text by Nichols might just belong to a writing style that is gone.Essay writing in its original definition could be described as a writing of a report (e.g. about a country or a situation) in a rather poetic manner. This kind of writing was very popular in the 19th century since much of the periodÃ¢â¬â¢s literature was inspired by epic works, struggles, revolutions and the romantic spirit. Revolutionary poems and this kind of Ã¢â¬Å"epic journalismÃ¢â¬ were very popular.The style to which the Nichols text bears such resemblance had a close relation to what used to called Travel Writing in several European languages. It is similar to the descriptive or epic journalism but it as an account of Ã a journey by a writer or a journalist, to some extent an equivalent to a foreign correspondent nowadays. Before the telegraph that was the only way to be kept in tune with the news abroad, the correspondent would send weekly or monthly reports through the mail and the texts would be published in journals or weeklies.Thomas Low Nichols is the perfect example of a high middle class amateur writer. The language he uses and the emphasis that is given to education in the text show a high level of education. He actually writes as a professional and was a writer by dedication (a quite famous one) but that most probably wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his main source of income.High middle class people in post revolutionary America usually had family estates or businesses to run and wrote, practiced law or got inv olved into politics for patriotic, personal or sentimental reasons rather then looking for a career as the case is today.Nichols is obviously from an estate and business owning family. He shows us that through the story of his father: Ã¢â¬Å"My father had been drafted as a militia-man during the war of 1812, and might have fought in the famous battle of Plattsburg had not his business engagements made it necessary for him to hire a substitute, by which he lost not only much glory, but the bounty-money and a hundred and sixty acres of land, which was afterwards given to every surviving soldier whose name could be found upon the rolls of the army.Ã¢â¬ His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s job was obviously important enough to allow him to hire a substitute as well as the fact that he became colonel shows a background of education and wealth.The most probable purpose of Nichols becoming a journalist and an author is a mixture of love for writing, patriotic feelings, positive hopes for a new country an d a new world.He belongs to the post revolutionary generation that might have lived through some periods of the revolution, but were too young to take any active part in it. His generation was more optimistic and Ã¢â¬Å"easy goingÃ¢â¬ then their fathers as well as they were more cultured and interested in arts and poetry then their revolutionary fathers were. They also enjoyed a better and more certain economic situation then their struggling fathers. In other words NicholÃ¢â¬â¢s generation was softer and more progressive.They were also very proud of what their fathers accomplished and Nichols actually gives us a mixed account of what has been accomplished by the war of independence as well as by the Cultural Revolution that was a direct result of the post revolutionary struggle for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s place as a young and progressive country.His writing is basically directed at young Americans and Europeans in order to show them the progress that was accomplished in the 30-odd ye ars of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. He writes first hand from personal experience and the literary sources available at the time.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Jack OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell Development of Western Civilization Dr. Carlson November 17, 2011 Slavery and Racism: Are They One in the Same? Aphra Behn was an extremely significant and influential English writer in the 1600s. One of her more famous works, Oroonoko, discusses the issues of slavery and racism in the Americas. Many people believe that slavery and racism go hand in hand. In fact, these two ideologies are awfully different. Slavery is the act of forcing humans to be treated property whereas racism is the belief that discrimination based on inherently different traits is justifiable.Behn, in Oroonoko, makes the fundamental differences between slavery and racism apparent. With the philosophical views of Rousseau and TrouillotÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis on the Haitian revolution, slavery and racism in Oroonoko can easily be separated and distinguished to show their dissimilarities. In the novel, Oroonoko is an African prince and war hero who enslaves many men from the various tribes he conq uers in battle. Oroonoko believes this form of slavery is just and should be acceptable. Later in the story, Oroonoko is tricked and sold into slavery.He eventually works with many of the slaves he had sold to the Europeans back in Africa. Oroonoko considers this form of slavery to be incredibly unjust. The plantation owners did not Ã¢â¬Å"winÃ¢â¬ their slaves over in battle like Oroonoko, rather they barter or trade for them (Boeninger 9/26). The white males also treat Oroonoko as a lesser human being even though he is royalty. They constantly deceive Oroonoko into believing that his freedom is coming when in reality it is nowhere in sight. Because there was such an economic gap between the black slaves and the white slave owners, racism naturally became common custom (Behn).Racism in this case was derived from slavery; they were not the same idea. Behn depicts slavery and racism in this manner to show how different the two ideas are. In Africa, the slaves and the slave owners w ere of the same race. The color of their skin was not a factor in how they were treated. The fact that they lost in battle was the only reason they were slaves (Behn). In the Americas however, race had a much bigger role in the treatment of slaves. The large plantation owners were white and the slaves were black.Because of the racial divide in the owners and slaves, many forms of racism were justified (Boeninger 9/27). This also led to the discrimination of the free black men in the society. Behn purposely shows slavery in Africa and slavery in Surinam to point out the extreme differences between racism and slavery. BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s description of Oroonoko and Imoinda also show the inherent difference between racism and slavery. Behn describes Oroonoko as a beautiful person by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"His nose was rising and Roman instead of African and flat; his mouth the finest shape that could be seen, [Ã¢â¬ ¦].The whole proportion and air of his face was so noble and exactly formed that, b ating his color there could be nothing in nature more beautiful, agreeable, and handsome (Behn 13). Ã¢â¬ The fantastic image Behn provides shows the reader that slavery and racism have different foundations. If they were the same idea, Behn would have never given such praise to a slave. She compares OroonokoÃ¢â¬â¢s looks to those of a white man which would not have happened if racism and slavery were the same. The description of his beauty relays to the reader that slavery and racism can be two very separate entities.Even though Behn makes a clear distinction between slavery and racism in the novel, many people would disagree in how she got that message across. In Oroonoko, BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s message seems anti-racist but it appears that she does not have a problem with slavery. Her problem arises from how the slaves are treated, but slavery in general is acceptable for Behn. One philosopher in particular would have a problem with BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s message. Jean- Jacques Rousseau, if he were to read Oroonoko, would have some concerns. In RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A DiscourseÃ¢â¬ , he discusses slavery and the rights of man.Rousseau believes that all men are born free and are equal according to nature. He would criticize Behn on her opinion of slavery saying that all men are born and should remain equal (Rousseau). Behn is very passive about her views on slavery where Rousseau is active in his writings. Even though he disagrees with BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s view on slavery he still believes slavery and racism are different. Rousseau would not dispute Behn over her view of racism. According to Rousseau, racism contrasts with his view on the rights of man. He believes all men are created equal; race should not be a reason to discriminate.He would also affirm what Behn has to say about the horrible treatment of Oroonoko by the white males throughout the story. They kept deceiving and leading Oroonoko on when they knew he would never be freed. Rousseau would say he should have r eceived better treatment. The color of his skin should not matter in his given situation. RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s belief on the equality of mankind can be used to critique the works of Behn (Carlson 11/10). Even though there are disagreements between the views Behn and Rousseau, both see that racism and slavery are two different ideas and should be treated separately.The Haitian revolution also witnessed severe racism and slavery. In Haiti, slaves occupied about 85% of the population while the free men only occupied about 15% (Breen 10/31). The sugar plantations needed these slaves to run the production which was a gruesome process. Through this horrible procedure, many people made their fortunes. The rich white men would have children with their black slaves and eventually their heirs were of mixed race. When the white females came to Haiti to look for a partner, they noticed the white males were only attracted to the mixed race females.The hatred led to severe racism of the black commun ity in Haiti (Breen 10/31). The stories of the beginning stages of Haitian revolution can easily be compared to the novel Oroonoko. In the Haitian revolution, many of the slave owners were of African descent. They resemble Oroonoko in Africa when he owned slaves of his same race. Racism was not a factor in either of these situations but slavery was. Because all parties were of the same race, slavery and racism did not go hand in hand. The problem in both cases was when the Europeans intervene.The racism was very prevalent in Oroonoko when all the white males were lying to him. They clearly did not respect the fact that he was royalty because of his descent. During the Haitian revolution, the European womenÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy caused racism to become prevalent on the island (Breen 10/31). The European jealousy also led to racism back in France. The European intermediates were one of the sources of racism in the early stages of the Haitian Revolution and in Oroonoko. The Haitian revolut ion was a power struggle amongst the white French and the black Haitians.Within this battle, many sects of Haitian rebel groups began fighting among each other. In TrouillotÃ¢â¬â¢s Silencing the Past, he discusses these fights among each other in the form of King Henry and Sans Souci (Trouillot). In his book, Trouillot talks about the race dilemma with the French and the Haitians. If Trouillot were to read BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s work, he would see similarities between the racism in Surinam and the racism in Haiti. In Oroonoko, the blacks are treated so horribly that they eventually revolted. That is very similar to what happened in Haiti. The Haitians eventually could not take the abuse and decided to revolt.In both cases they revolted for the racism and the slavery (Carlson 10/3). In Silencing the Past and Oroonoko during the revolts, it seems that slavery and racism are the same. In actuality the slavery and racist views stem about from different ideas. Even though at times it seems that slavery and racism are related, there are always underlying views that separate the two thoughts. Through Aphra BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, the public can get a solid grasp of the differences between racism and slavery. With the help of Rousseau and Trouillot, the differences between slavery and racism only become greater and more distinct.Hopefully, people will come to realize how different these two ideologies actually are so they can get a better grasp of the past. Bibliography Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko. London: Penguin, 2003. Print. Boeninger. Notes. 9/26/2011-9/27/2011 Breen. Notes. 10/31/2011 Carlson. Notes. 10/3/2011, 11/10/2011 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Ã¢â¬Å"Rousseau: On the Origin of Inequality: Second Part. Ã¢â¬ Ã Index. G. D. H Cole, 19 Oct. 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Ã¢â¬Å"The Three Faces of Sans Souci. Ã¢â¬ Ã Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1995. Print. Slavery and Racism Jack OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell Development of Western Civilization Dr. Carlson November 17, 2011 Slavery and Racism: Are They One in the Same? Aphra Behn was an extremely significant and influential English writer in the 1600s. One of her more famous works, Oroonoko, discusses the issues of slavery and racism in the Americas. Many people believe that slavery and racism go hand in hand. In fact, these two ideologies are awfully different. Slavery is the act of forcing humans to be treated property whereas racism is the belief that discrimination based on inherently different traits is justifiable.Behn, in Oroonoko, makes the fundamental differences between slavery and racism apparent. With the philosophical views of Rousseau and TrouillotÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis on the Haitian revolution, slavery and racism in Oroonoko can easily be separated and distinguished to show their dissimilarities. In the novel, Oroonoko is an African prince and war hero who enslaves many men from the various tribes he conq uers in battle. Oroonoko believes this form of slavery is just and should be acceptable. Later in the story, Oroonoko is tricked and sold into slavery.He eventually works with many of the slaves he had sold to the Europeans back in Africa. Oroonoko considers this form of slavery to be incredibly unjust. The plantation owners did not Ã¢â¬Å"winÃ¢â¬ their slaves over in battle like Oroonoko, rather they barter or trade for them (Boeninger 9/26). The white males also treat Oroonoko as a lesser human being even though he is royalty. They constantly deceive Oroonoko into believing that his freedom is coming when in reality it is nowhere in sight. Because there was such an economic gap between the black slaves and the white slave owners, racism naturally became common custom (Behn).Racism in this case was derived from slavery; they were not the same idea. Behn depicts slavery and racism in this manner to show how different the two ideas are. In Africa, the slaves and the slave owners w ere of the same race. The color of their skin was not a factor in how they were treated. The fact that they lost in battle was the only reason they were slaves (Behn). In the Americas however, race had a much bigger role in the treatment of slaves. The large plantation owners were white and the slaves were black.Because of the racial divide in the owners and slaves, many forms of racism were justified (Boeninger 9/27). This also led to the discrimination of the free black men in the society. Behn purposely shows slavery in Africa and slavery in Surinam to point out the extreme differences between racism and slavery. BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s description of Oroonoko and Imoinda also show the inherent difference between racism and slavery. Behn describes Oroonoko as a beautiful person by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"His nose was rising and Roman instead of African and flat; his mouth the finest shape that could be seen, [Ã¢â¬ ¦].The whole proportion and air of his face was so noble and exactly formed that, b ating his color there could be nothing in nature more beautiful, agreeable, and handsome (Behn 13). Ã¢â¬ The fantastic image Behn provides shows the reader that slavery and racism have different foundations. If they were the same idea, Behn would have never given such praise to a slave. She compares OroonokoÃ¢â¬â¢s looks to those of a white man which would not have happened if racism and slavery were the same. The description of his beauty relays to the reader that slavery and racism can be two very separate entities.Even though Behn makes a clear distinction between slavery and racism in the novel, many people would disagree in how she got that message across. In Oroonoko, BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s message seems anti-racist but it appears that she does not have a problem with slavery. Her problem arises from how the slaves are treated, but slavery in general is acceptable for Behn. One philosopher in particular would have a problem with BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s message. Jean- Jacques Rousseau, if he were to read Oroonoko, would have some concerns. In RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A DiscourseÃ¢â¬ , he discusses slavery and the rights of man.Rousseau believes that all men are born free and are equal according to nature. He would criticize Behn on her opinion of slavery saying that all men are born and should remain equal (Rousseau). Behn is very passive about her views on slavery where Rousseau is active in his writings. Even though he disagrees with BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s view on slavery he still believes slavery and racism are different. Rousseau would not dispute Behn over her view of racism. According to Rousseau, racism contrasts with his view on the rights of man. He believes all men are created equal; race should not be a reason to discriminate.He would also affirm what Behn has to say about the horrible treatment of Oroonoko by the white males throughout the story. They kept deceiving and leading Oroonoko on when they knew he would never be freed. Rousseau would say he should have r eceived better treatment. The color of his skin should not matter in his given situation. RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s belief on the equality of mankind can be used to critique the works of Behn (Carlson 11/10). Even though there are disagreements between the views Behn and Rousseau, both see that racism and slavery are two different ideas and should be treated separately.The Haitian revolution also witnessed severe racism and slavery. In Haiti, slaves occupied about 85% of the population while the free men only occupied about 15% (Breen 10/31). The sugar plantations needed these slaves to run the production which was a gruesome process. Through this horrible procedure, many people made their fortunes. The rich white men would have children with their black slaves and eventually their heirs were of mixed race. When the white females came to Haiti to look for a partner, they noticed the white males were only attracted to the mixed race females.The hatred led to severe racism of the black commun ity in Haiti (Breen 10/31). The stories of the beginning stages of Haitian revolution can easily be compared to the novel Oroonoko. In the Haitian revolution, many of the slave owners were of African descent. They resemble Oroonoko in Africa when he owned slaves of his same race. Racism was not a factor in either of these situations but slavery was. Because all parties were of the same race, slavery and racism did not go hand in hand. The problem in both cases was when the Europeans intervene.The racism was very prevalent in Oroonoko when all the white males were lying to him. They clearly did not respect the fact that he was royalty because of his descent. During the Haitian revolution, the European womenÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy caused racism to become prevalent on the island (Breen 10/31). The European jealousy also led to racism back in France. The European intermediates were one of the sources of racism in the early stages of the Haitian Revolution and in Oroonoko. The Haitian revolut ion was a power struggle amongst the white French and the black Haitians.Within this battle, many sects of Haitian rebel groups began fighting among each other. In TrouillotÃ¢â¬â¢s Silencing the Past, he discusses these fights among each other in the form of King Henry and Sans Souci (Trouillot). In his book, Trouillot talks about the race dilemma with the French and the Haitians. If Trouillot were to read BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s work, he would see similarities between the racism in Surinam and the racism in Haiti. In Oroonoko, the blacks are treated so horribly that they eventually revolted. That is very similar to what happened in Haiti. The Haitians eventually could not take the abuse and decided to revolt.In both cases they revolted for the racism and the slavery (Carlson 10/3). In Silencing the Past and Oroonoko during the revolts, it seems that slavery and racism are the same. In actuality the slavery and racist views stem about from different ideas. Even though at times it seems that slavery and racism are related, there are always underlying views that separate the two thoughts. Through Aphra BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, the public can get a solid grasp of the differences between racism and slavery. With the help of Rousseau and Trouillot, the differences between slavery and racism only become greater and more distinct.Hopefully, people will come to realize how different these two ideologies actually are so they can get a better grasp of the past. Bibliography Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko. London: Penguin, 2003. Print. Boeninger. Notes. 9/26/2011-9/27/2011 Breen. Notes. 10/31/2011 Carlson. Notes. 10/3/2011, 11/10/2011 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Ã¢â¬Å"Rousseau: On the Origin of Inequality: Second Part. Ã¢â¬ Ã Index. G. D. H Cole, 19 Oct. 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Ã¢â¬Å"The Three Faces of Sans Souci. Ã¢â¬ Ã Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1995. Print.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Social injustice particularly that of [public] health, has been a constant pariah to the common society. Various Ã¢â¬ËtheoriesÃ¢â¬â¢ were posited as to the root cause of public health inequity; Phelan and Link (2005) directly associated the Ã¢â¬ËfundamentalÃ¢â¬â¢ causes of public health inequity with the Ã¢â¬Ësocioeconomic statuses (SES)Ã¢â¬â¢, the Ã¢â¬Ësocial conditionsÃ¢â¬â¢, the Ã¢â¬ËgradientsÃ¢â¬â¢ that existed therein. The fundamental cause lies on the material/ resources imbalance as the authors Phelan and Link (2005), Farmer (1999), and Lynch et al (2000) demonstrated. The fundamental causes of morbidity and mortality consist of: (1) influences to multiple disease outcomes, (2) operation through multiple risk factors, (3) intervening mechanism reproduce the association, and (4) finally, the most important feature of Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental causesÃ¢â¬â¢, it involves accession to resources that can be used to avoid risks or minimize the consequences of the disease involved. Health accession is shaped by extent of socio-economic resources (Phelan and Link, 2005). Here it is noted that the cognitive ability or intelligence cannot explain the relation between resource and health. SES, is, admittedly a Ã¢â¬ËconstantÃ¢â¬â¢ and persistent state of the general society (Phelan and Link, 2005). Not even the introduction of knowledge or the epidemiology of the disease was able to completely eradicate the health maladies present; instead, it seems to encourage health inequity. The US, a supra-economic world engine, has a systematic health care delivery system yet a relatively large proportion of their populationÃ¢â¬âAmerican Indians, Blacks and Hispanic and Asian immigrantsÃ¢â¬âdo not enjoy the benefits of the health care system as much as their rich counter parts. Localization of public health inequity is fed by the health biased terms like Ã¢â¬ËThird WorldÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËBlacksÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëthe poorÃ¢â¬â¢, and other terms that denote social stigma and racism . The aggravation of health inequity is destined to worsen with the current trend on Ã¢â¬ËcommodifyingÃ¢â¬â¢ medicine and health and their Ã¢â¬Ëmoney-makingÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in the market industry. Health inequity, as a result of multi-faceted elements of the society, is, as much as a disease as the feared bacillus Ã¢â¬ËtubercleÃ¢â¬â¢, the causal agent of tuberculosis; Farmer (1999) illustrated the consumption of the disease agent Ã¢â¬Ëconsuming the lives of the lower strata that existed in the late twentieth century. Farmer illustrates the case of societal Ã¢â¬ËinfectionÃ¢â¬â¢ with different experiences of three stereotype tubercle patientsÃ¢â¬âJean Dubussoin (Haitian rural peasant), Corina Valdivia (Latin American with a multi-resistant drug strain of bacillus tubercle) and Calvin Loach (Afro-American and injection drug user). It was Ã¢â¬Ësocial factorsÃ¢â¬â¢ that determined the fate of these three-infected persons. Their struggle against their disease demonstrates the common obstacles they faced during health accession. JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s very low income and the long distance from the hospital dilapidated her chance at having a good accession to medical services offered. CorinaÃ¢â¬â¢s case was exactly the same except that it demonstrated that of improper treatment of her disease and medical wariness. CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s case was psychosocial wherein there was suggested wariness between him and the medical practitioner due to Ã¢â¬Ë[racial] warinessÃ¢â¬â¢ and late detection. Health inequity of tubercle bacillary patients does not stem from medical mismanagement, from physician-directed errors, as the three Ã¢â¬Ëstereotypes demonstrate, but more on the conglomeration of factors like race, income, economic policies, ease of health accession and fear of being apprehended or ignored by the medical staffs (Farmer, 1999). According to Lynch et al (2000), health inequity may also be associated with neomaterial interpretation Ã¢â¬âdifferential accumulation of exposures and experiences that have their sources in the material worldÃ¢â¬âand differences in individual income. Health inequity, then, in general, is highly dependent on the resources of the individual. This is in opposition of the psychosocial theory which precludes that inequity is, more or less, a result of hierarchy stress or the combination of maladaptive behaviours as a reaction to the SES. The association between the standard of living and health cannot be easily dismantled, yet, on the face of such social health injustice, what actions are available for the State to remedy this particular problem? Lynch et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (2000) on solubilizing the problem was vague and inconclusive: .. trategic investments in neo-material conditions via more equitable distribution of public and private resources that are likely to have the most impact on reducing health inequalities and improving public health in both rich and poor countries in the 21st centuryÃ¢â¬ ¦ (p. 1203) FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) ultimate solution is pragmatic solidarity. The term was rather vague and inconclusive with no proper defin itum; Pragmatic solidarity was loosely defined as something that would mean Ã¢â¬Ëincreased funding for control and treatment [of diseases]Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëmaking therapy available in a systematic wayÃ¢â¬â¢ and preventing Ã¢â¬Ëemergence [of diseases]. FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s primary intent is to target the health anathema at the specific level. On the other hand, Link and PhelanÃ¢â¬â¢s approach was different. Link and Phelan (2005) posited a barrage of solutions which capitalizes on policy consideration as macro-level approach to the problemÃ¢â¬â creating intervention that benefit state members irregardless of their own resources and actions, monitoring the dissemination of health enhancing information and interventions and creating policies that would distribute resources to the poor. A good solution to the problem would be targeting health inequity using combinatorial methods on the macro and micro-level approach. Interventions created at the larger scale such as policy consideration is a good approach and finding out the etiology of various diseases obviously have positive outcomes for Ã¢â¬ËcuringÃ¢â¬â¢. Such interventions are necessary to preserve not only the health of the general public but also to maintain a relatively pure, socially just and a healthy environment.